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Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand

Chunta S.,Mahasarakham University | Prathepha P.,Mahasarakham University | Thiha,Mahasarakham University | Jongdee B.,Ubon Ratchathani Rice Research Center
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2014

Thailand has a large number of rice landrace varieties which are still grown by native tribes and small farmers in distant areas of the country. In these remote areas agricultural practices are primarily for food sufficiency and the farmer's livelihood. Different native rice varieties are used for different purposes. Traditional utilization of rice landraces in Northeastern Thailand include: food, medicine, rituals, wine and native whisky; agriculture and animal feed; economic purposes and exchange. This paper presents the traditional knowledge of utilization of rice landraces of farmers in four selected locations of Northeastern Thailand (Sakon Nakhon, Roi Et, Ubon Ratchathani and Nakon Rachasima Provinces). Source

Wongsaprom C.,Kasetsart University | Sirithunya P.,Rajamangala University of Technology at Lanna | Vanavichit A.,Kasetsart University | Pantuwan G.,0 Paholyothin Rd. | And 4 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2010

Two quantitative trait loci (QTL) that confer a broad-spectrum resistance to blast disease identified in the rice cultivar Jao Hom Nin (JHN) were transferred to the Thai glutinous jasmine rice cultivar RD6 by marker-assisted backcrossing (MAB). Four backcrosses and one selfing were conducted in which the derived introgression lines (ILs) that carried homozygous JHN alleles at the QTL recovered up to 98% of the RD6 genome. Ninety-eight BC4F2 introgression lines that consisted of four combinations of the two QTL were evaluated for their resistance to eight single spore isolates and natural isolates at three research locations. Introgression lines were examined for their agronomic performance by comparing them to the original RD6 in multi-location trials across five locations. All ILs that carried the QTL (either one or two QTL) showed lower disease scores than ILs without any QTL and lower scores than the recipient cultivar RD6, whereas their agronomic performances were not significantly different from the original RD6. All ILs that carried at least one QTL showed a broad-spectrum blast resistance that was similar to the donor cultivar JHN. The success in improving the blast resistance in RD6 by MAB was shown. In this study, MAB accelerated the development of broad-spectrum blast resistance in the genetic background of the Thai glutinous rice cultivar RD6 within 4 years. The improved RD6 has now been tested in cultivation for several years. Two of the ILs were released in 2008. Currently, farmers in the north and northeast regions of Thailand (areas that are particularly vulnerable to blast disease) benefit from growing these two varieties. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Boling A.A.,International Rice Research Institute | Bouman B.A.M.,International Rice Research Institute | Tuong T.P.,International Rice Research Institute | Konboon Y.,Ubon Ratchathani Rice Research Center | And 2 more authors.
NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences | Year: 2011

Yield constraint analysis using a combination of experiments and crop growth models has been useful for quantifying the relative role of yield-limiting factors, and for prioritizing management interventions aimed at increasing the yields of non-photoperiod-sensitive rice grown under rainfed conditions. The use of a systems approach for photoperiod-sensitive varieties is constrained by the lack of crop growth models that can simulate the varieties' photoperiod response. This study used data from the literature, from a controlled-growth experiment, and from multi-location field experiments to determine the photoperiod-sensitivity parameters of Jasmine rice grown in north-east Thailand, and incorporated these in the ORYZA2000 model. Next, the model was used to analyse yield gaps by comparing yields in farmers' fields with the simulated attainable yields with an adequate N supply (60 kg ha -1) under irrigated conditions. The ORYZA2000 model adequately simulated growth, development, and yield of Jasmine rice over a 0-150 kg N ha-1 range under irrigated and normal to above-normal rainfall conditions. The simulated attainable yields ranged from 3.47 to 5.96 Mg ha -1. A simulated yield gap of 1.76 Mg ha-1 (41%) currently exists in rainfed rice farmers' fields. Yield gaps could be substantially reduced by 1.48 Mg ha-1 (34%) through improved N-management practices. The yield gap caused by water limitation was small (0.02 Mg ha -1, <1%) during the study period, when rainfall was normal to above normal. The large yield gap beyond the farmers' current fertilizer level suggests considerable scope for increasing yields through site- and time-specific nutrient management. A long-term simulation study including years with rainfall below normal is needed to comprehensively quantify yield gaps caused by water limitation. Such long-term simulation is hindered by the lack of long-term groundwater depth measurements. © 2010 Royal Netherlands Society for Agricultural Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Jairin J.,Ubon Ratchathani Rice Research Center | Jairin J.,Kyushu University | Kobayashi T.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Yamagata Y.,Kyushu University | And 10 more authors.
DNA Research | Year: 2013

In this study, we developed the first genetic linkage map for the major rice insect pest, the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens). The linkage map was constructed by integrating linkage data from two backcross populations derived from three inbred BPH strains. The consensus map consists of 474 simple sequence repeats, 43 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and 1 sequence-tagged site, for a total of 518 markers at 472 unique positions in 17 linkage groups. The linkage groups cover 1093.9 cM, with an average distance of 2.3 cM between loci. The average number of marker loci per linkage group was 27.8. The sex-linkage group was identified by exploiting X-linked and Y-specific markers. Our linkage map and the newly developed markers used to create it constitute an essential resource and a useful framework for future genetic analyses in BPH. © 2012 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Source

Win K.M.,Kasetsart University | Korinsak S.,Kasetsart University | Jantaboon J.,Kasetsart University | Siangliw M.,Kasetsart University | And 7 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2012

Bacterial blight (BB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is one of the most devastating diseases of rainfed lowland rice in Thailand. The gene Xa21 shows broad-spectrum resistance and has been widely utilized to improve BB resistance in rice worldwide. However, Xa21 is not fully expressed in the early stages of development (seedling stage). In this study, we attempted to improve the Thai jasmine rice variety KDML105 to obtain non-age-related broad-spectrum resistance to BB. The Xa21 gene and seedling resistance genes from rice variety IR1188 (a variety with non-age-related broad-spectrum resistance to BB) were introgressed into KDML105 through three rounds of marker-assisted backcrossing (MAB) and phenotypic selection. Sixty KDML105 backcross introgression lines (KBILs) carrying the Xa21 gene were successfully developed. They were used to evaluate seedling resistance against thirteen Xoo strains. Three seedling resistance (SR) loci inherited from IR1188 were identified on rice chromosomes 1 (RM302-RM212), 8 (RM210-RM149) and 11 (RM287-RM224). The agronomic characters of the KBILs were assessed by planting these lines in the paddy field at Kasetsart University in 2003. Phenotypic variation was observed in the agronomic traits of these lines. Seven KBILs carrying the Xa21 and multiple SR loci and also having a similar plant type to the original KDML105 were chosen for testing in multi-location trials at research stations in rainfed lowland environments. The trials were conducted in 10 and 11 locations in the North and Northeast of Thailand, respectively, between 2005 and 2006. The yield, agronomic traits, cooking quality and important diseases were examined and compared with those of the original KML105. All of the 7 KBILs had a cooking quality profile (aroma, amylose content, gel consistency and alkaline spreading value) and agronomic performance similar to the original KDML105. In 2007, four KBILs were planted in farmers' fields at 5 locations. All BILs and the original KDML105 did not differ significantly in their agronomic performance. In this study, multiple loci for broad-spectrum seedling resistance were identified from the KBIL population developed by the integrated marker-assisted and phenotypic selection procedures (MAS and PS). These results facilitated the successful improvement of non-age-related broad-spectrum BB resistance in KDML105. The established non-age-related broad-spectrum BB-resistant KDML105 is currently recommended by Kasetsart University for planting in farmers' fields where the crop is vulnerable to BB. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

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