Ubeera Memorial Research Society

Lahore, Pakistan

Ubeera Memorial Research Society

Lahore, Pakistan

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Mushtaq M.U.,Ubeera Memorial Research Society | Gull S.,Ubeera Memorial Research Society | Shad M.A.,Government of Punjab | Akram J.,Ubeera Memorial Research Society
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2011

Objective: To explore socio-demographic correlates of the health-seeking behaviours among urban and rural population. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in two districts of Pakistan's Punjab province with a random multi-stage cluster sample of 1080 individuals. Bivariate analysis using chi-square test and Fisher's exact test was used as the test of trend. Multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Statistical significance was considered at P<0.05. Results: Utilization of the public health facilities (74%) was associated with rural area (P=0.034) and poverty (P=0.001) while use of the private hospitals (41%) was associated with better education (P=0.002) and higher income (P<0.001). When simultaneously adjusted for area, income and education, the poor were more likely to use the public hospitals (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.56-3.37) and less likely to attend a private hospital (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.30-0.60). Main constraints in the public health facility use were cost (25%), dissatisfaction with quality of care (19%) and transportation difficulties (12%). Costs were more likely to be a problem among rural (P=0.010), illiterate (P<0.001) and poor (P<0.001) while dissatisfaction with quality of care was associated with urban area (P<0.001) and poverty (P=0.001). Conclusion: Socio-demographic factors significantly drive the health seeking behaviours among general population. After adjusting for all factors, the poor were more likely to use public hospitals. Costs and dissatisfaction with quality of care were main constraints in utilization of the public health facilities.


Mushtaq M.U.,Ubeera Memorial Research Society | Mushtaq M.U.,District Health Office Nankana Sahib | Gull S.,King Edward Medical University | Abdullah H.M.,Ubeera Memorial Research Society | And 3 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2011

Background: Childhood obesity is becoming an equally challenging, yet under-recognized, problem in developing countries including Pakistan. Children and adolescents are worst affected with an estimated 10% of the world's school-going children being overweight and one quarter of these being obese. The study aimed to assess prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of overweight and obesity, and trend in prevalence statistics, among Pakistani primary school children. Methods. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged 5-12 years in Lahore, Pakistan. Overweight (> + 1SD) and obesity (> + 2SD) were defined using the World Health Organization child growth reference 2007. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Linear regression was used to examine the predictive power of independent variables in relation to BMI. Logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors for overweight and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained. All regression analyses were controlled for age and gender and statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. Results: Seventeen percent (95% CI 15.4-18.8) children were overweight and 7.5% (95% CI 6.5-8.7) were obese. Higher prevalence of obesity was observed among boys than girls (P = 0.028), however, there was no gender disparity in overweight prevalence. Prevalence of overweight showed a significantly increasing trend with grade (P < 0.001). Children living in the urban area with high socioeconomic status (SES) were significantly at risk for being overweight and obese (both P < 0.001) as compared to children living in the urban area with lower SES and rural children. Being in higher grade (aOR 2.39, 95% CI 1.17-4.90) and living in the urban area with higher SES (aOR 18.10, 95% CI 10.24-32.00) independently predicted the risk of being overweight. Conclusion: Alarmingly rapid rise in overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children was observed, especially among the affluent urban population. The findings support the urgent need for National preventive strategy for childhood obesity and targeted interventions tailored to local circumstances with meaningful involvement of communities. © 2011 Mushtaq et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Mushtaq M.U.,Ubeera Memorial Research Society | Mushtaq M.U.,District Health Office Nankana Sahib | Gull S.,Ubeera Memorial Research Society | Mushtaq K.,Ubeera Memorial Research Society | And 5 more authors.
BMC Pediatrics | Year: 2012

Background: Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. This study was aimed to compare age- and gender-specific height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children.Methods: A population-based study was conducted with a multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed height, weight and BMI percentile curves were obtained and comparison was made with the World Health Organization 2007 (WHO) and United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 (USCDC) references. Over- and under-nutrition were defined according to the WHO and USCDC references, and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs. Simple descriptive statistics were used and statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05.Results: Height, weight and BMI percentiles increased with age among both boys and girls, and both had approximately the same height and a lower weight and BMI as compared to the WHO and USCDC references. Mean differences from zero for height-, weight- and BMI-for-age z score values relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant (P < 0.001). Means of height-for-age (present study: 0.00, WHO: -0.19, USCDC: -0.24), weight-for-age (present study: 0.00, WHO: -0.22, USCDC: -0.48) and BMI-for-age (present study: 0.00, WHO: -0.32, USCDC: -0.53) z score values relative to the WHO reference were closer to zero and the present study as compared to the USCDC reference. Mean differences between weight-for-age (0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.30) and BMI-for-age (0.21, 95% CI 0.11-0.30) z scores relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant. Over-nutrition estimates were higher (P < 0.001) by the WHO reference as compared to the USCDC reference (17% vs. 15% overweight and 7.5% vs. 4% obesity) while underweight and thinness/wasting were lower (P < 0.001) by the WHO reference as compared to the USCDC reference (7% vs. 12% underweight and 10% vs. 13% thinness). Significantly lower overweight (8%) and obesity (5%) prevalence and higher thinness grade one prevalence (19%) was seen with use of the IOTF cut-offs as compared to the WHO and USCDC references. Mean difference between height-for-age z scores and difference in stunting prevalence relative to the WHO and USCDC references was not significant.Conclusion: Pakistani school-aged children significantly differed from the WHO and USCDC references. However, z score means relative to the WHO reference were closer to zero and the present study as compared to the USCDC reference. Overweight and obesity were significantly higher while underweight and thinness/wasting were significantly lower relative to the WHO reference as compared to the USCDC reference and the IOTF cut-offs. New growth charts for Pakistani children based on a nationally representative sample should be developed. Nevertheless, shifting to use of the 2007 WHO child growth reference might have important implications for child health programs and primary care pediatric clinics. © 2012 Mushtaq et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Mushtaq M.U.,Ubeera Memorial Research Society | Mushtaq M.U.,District Health Office Nankana Sahib | Gull S.,Ubeera Memorial Research Society | Mushtaq K.,Ubeera Memorial Research Society | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity | Year: 2011

Background: There is no data on diet- and activity-related behaviors associated with overweight and obesity among Pakistani school-aged children. The study aimed to explore dietary behaviors, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle associated with overweight and obesity, and their socio-demographic correlates, among Pakistani primary school children.Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage random cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Overweight (> +1 SD) and obesity (> +2 SD) were defined using the World Health Organization reference 2007. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Linear regression was used to examine the predictive power of independent variables in relation to body mass index (BMI). Logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05.Results: Children skipping breakfast (8%), eating fast food and snacks ≥ once a week (43%) and being involved in sedentary lifestyle > one hour a day (49%) were significantly more likely to be overweight and obese while those participating in physical activity > twice a week (53%) were significantly less likely to be overweight and obese (all P < 0.01). Skipping breakfast (P < 0.001), eating fast food and snacks (P = 0.001) and sedentary lifestyle (P < 0.001) showed an independent positive association with BMI while physical activity showed an independent inverse association (P = 0.001). Skipping breakfast (aOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.22-2.71), eating fast food and snacks ≥ once a week (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.07-1.86), physical activity > twice a week (aOR 0.49, 95% CI 0.34-0.70) and sedentary lifestyle > one hour a day (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.19-2.03) were independent predictors of being overweight. Skipping breakfast had independent inverse association with physical activity (aOR 0.63, 95% CI 0.45-0.89) and eating fast food and snacks had independent positive association with sedentary lifestyle (aOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.49-2.16). Female gender was independently associated with skipping breakfast (aOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.04-2.16). Male gender (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.33-2.02), urban area with high SES (aOR 5.09, 95% CI 3.02-8.60) and higher parental education (aOR 1.74, 95% CI 1.12-2.68) were significant independent predictors of eating fast food and snacks ≥ once a week. Living in the rural area was independently associated (aOR 2.51, 95% CI 1.71-3.68) with physical activity > twice a week. Male gender (aOR 1.60, 95% CI 1.31-1.95), urban area with low SES (aOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.02-2.09), high-income neighborhoods (aOR 1.52, 95% CI 1.02-2.25), higher parental education (aOR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03-2.34) and fewer siblings (aOR 1.38, 95% CI 1.10-1.73) were independent predictors of sedentary lifestyle > one hour a day.Conclusions: Dietary behaviors, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle are independent predictors of overweight and higher BMI among Pakistani primary school children, and are significantly affected by the child's socio-demographic characteristics. These findings support the urgent need to develop a National strategy for diet and physical activity and to implement culturally relevant behavioral interventions in the resource-poor developing country settings. © 2011 Mushtaq et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Mushtaq M.U.,Ubeera Memorial Research Society | Mushtaq M.U.,District Health Office Nankana Sahib | Gull S.,Ubeera Memorial Research Society | Abdullah H.M.,Ubeera Memorial Research Society | And 3 more authors.
BMC Pediatrics | Year: 2011

Background: Central obesity has been associated with the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in children and anthropometric indices predictive of central obesity include waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-height ratio (WHtR). South Asian children have higher body fat distribution in the trunk region but the literature regarding WC and related indices is scarce in this region. The study was aimed to provide age- and gender-specific WC, WHR and WHtR smoothed percentiles, and to explore prevalence and correlates of central obesity, among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years.Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage random cluster sample of 1860 primary school children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed percentile curves were constructed for WC, WHR and WHtR by the LMS method. Central obesity was defined as having both age- and gender-specific WC percentile ≥90 thand WHtR ≥0.5. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors of central obesity and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% CI were obtained. Linear regression was used to explore the independent determinants of WC and WHtR. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05.Results: First ever age- and gender-specific smoothed WC, WHR and WHtR reference curves for Pakistani children aged five to twelve years are presented. WC increased with age among both boys and girls. Fiftieth WC percentile curves for Pakistani children were higher as compared to those for Hong Kong and British children, and were lower as compared to those for Iranian, German and Swiss children. WHR showed a plateau pattern among boys while plateau among girls until nine years of age and decreased afterwards. WHtR was age-independent among both boys and girls, and WHtR cut-off of ≥0.5 for defining central obesity corresponded to 85 thWHtR percentile irrespective of age and gender. Twelve percent children (95% CI 10.1-13.0) had a WC ≥90 thpercentile and 16.5% children (95% CI 14.7-18.1) had a WHtR ≥0.5 while 11% children (95% CI 8.9-11.6) had both WC ≥90 thpercentile and WHtR ≥0.5. Significant predictors of central obesity included higher grade, urban area with high socioeconomic status (SES), high-income neighborhood and higher parental education. Children studying in higher grade (aOR 5.11, 95% CI 1.76-14.85) and those living in urban area with high SES (aOR 82.34, 95% CI 15.76-430.31) showed a significant independent association. Urban area with high SES and higher parental education showed a significant independent association with higher WC and higher WHtR while higher grade showed a significant independent association with higher WC.Conclusions: Comprehensive worldwide reference values are needed to define central obesity and the present study is the first one to report anthropometric indices predictive of central obesity for Pakistani school-aged children. Eleven percent children were centrally obese and strong predictors included higher grade, urban area with high SES and higher parental education. These findings support the need for developing a National strategy for childhood obesity and implementing targeted interventions, prioritizing the higher social class and involving communities. © 2011 Mushtaq et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Mushtaq M.U.,Ubeera Memorial Research Society
BMC public health | Year: 2011

Childhood obesity is becoming an equally challenging, yet under-recognized, problem in developing countries including Pakistan. Children and adolescents are worst affected with an estimated 10% of the world's school-going children being overweight and one quarter of these being obese. The study aimed to assess prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of overweight and obesity, and trend in prevalence statistics, among Pakistani primary school children. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged 5-12 years in Lahore, Pakistan. Overweight (> + 1SD) and obesity (> + 2SD) were defined using the World Health Organization child growth reference 2007. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Linear regression was used to examine the predictive power of independent variables in relation to BMI. Logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors for overweight and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained. All regression analyses were controlled for age and gender and statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. Seventeen percent (95% CI 15.4-18.8) children were overweight and 7.5% (95% CI 6.5-8.7) were obese. Higher prevalence of obesity was observed among boys than girls (P = 0.028), however, there was no gender disparity in overweight prevalence. Prevalence of overweight showed a significantly increasing trend with grade (P < 0.001). Children living in the urban area with high socioeconomic status (SES) were significantly at risk for being overweight and obese (both P < 0.001) as compared to children living in the urban area with lower SES and rural children. Being in higher grade (aOR 2.39, 95% CI 1.17-4.90) and living in the urban area with higher SES (aOR 18.10, 95% CI 10.24-32.00) independently predicted the risk of being overweight. Alarmingly rapid rise in overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children was observed, especially among the affluent urban population. The findings support the urgent need for National preventive strategy for childhood obesity and targeted interventions tailored to local circumstances with meaningful involvement of communities.


Mushtaq M.U.,Ubeera Memorial Research Society | Mushtaq M.U.,District Health Office Nankana Sahib | Gull S.,Ubeera Memorial Research Society | Shahid U.,Ubeera Memorial Research Society | And 4 more authors.
BMC Pediatrics | Year: 2011

Background: Childhood obesity epidemic is now penetrating the developing countries including Pakistan, especially in the affluent urban population. There is no data on association of family-based factors with overweight and obesity among school-aged children in Pakistan. The study aimed to explore the family-based factors associated with overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children.Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Overweight (> +1SD BMI-for-age z-score) and obesity (> +2SD BMI-for-age z-score) were defined using the World Health Organization reference 2007. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Linear regression was used to examine the predictive power of independent variables in relation to BMI. Logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors of overweight and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained. All regression analyses were controlled for age and gender and statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05.Results: Significant family-based correlates of overweight and obesity included higher parental education (P < 0.001), both parents working (P = 0.002), fewer siblings (P < 0.001), fewer persons in child's living room (P < 0.001) and residence in high-income neighborhoods (P < 0.001). Smoking in living place was not associated with overweight and obesity. Higher parental education (P < 0.001) and living in high-income neighborhoods (P < 0.001) showed a significant independent positive association with BMI while greater number of siblings (P = 0.001) and persons in child's living room (P = 0.022) showed a significant independent inverse association. College-level or higher parental education as compared to high school-level or lower parental education (aOR 2.54, 95% CI 1.76-3.67), living in high-income neighborhoods as compared to low-income neighborhoods (aOR 2.13, 95% CI 1.31-3.46) and three or less siblings as compared to more than three siblings (aOR 1.75, 95% CI 1.26-2.42) were significant independent predictors of overweight.Conclusion: Family-based factors were significantly associated with overweight and obesity among school-aged children in Pakistan. Higher parental education, living in high-income neighborhoods and fewer siblings were independent predictors of overweight. These findings support the need to design evidence-based child health policy and implement targeted interventions, considering the impact of family-based factors and involving communities. © 2011 Mushtaq et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. This study was aimed to compare age- and gender-specific height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children.A population-based study was conducted with a multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed height, weight and BMI percentile curves were obtained and comparison was made with the World Health Organization 2007 (WHO) and United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 (USCDC) references. Over- and under-nutrition were defined according to the WHO and USCDC references, and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs. Simple descriptive statistics were used and statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05.Height, weight and BMI percentiles increased with age among both boys and girls, and both had approximately the same height and a lower weight and BMI as compared to the WHO and USCDC references. Mean differences from zero for height-, weight- and BMI-for-age z score values relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant (P < 0.001). Means of height-for-age (present study: 0.00, WHO: -0.19, USCDC: -0.24), weight-for-age (present study: 0.00, WHO: -0.22, USCDC: -0.48) and BMI-for-age (present study: 0.00, WHO: -0.32, USCDC: -0.53) z score values relative to the WHO reference were closer to zero and the present study as compared to the USCDC reference. Mean differences between weight-for-age (0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.30) and BMI-for-age (0.21, 95% CI 0.11-0.30) z scores relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant. Over-nutrition estimates were higher (P < 0.001) by the WHO reference as compared to the USCDC reference (17% vs. 15% overweight and 7.5% vs. 4% obesity) while underweight and thinness/wasting were lower (P < 0.001) by the WHO reference as compared to the USCDC reference (7% vs. 12% underweight and 10% vs. 13% thinness). Significantly lower overweight (8%) and obesity (5%) prevalence and higher thinness grade one prevalence (19%) was seen with use of the IOTF cut-offs as compared to the WHO and USCDC references. Mean difference between height-for-age z scores and difference in stunting prevalence relative to the WHO and USCDC references was not significant.Pakistani school-aged children significantly differed from the WHO and USCDC references. However, z score means relative to the WHO reference were closer to zero and the present study as compared to the USCDC reference. Overweight and obesity were significantly higher while underweight and thinness/wasting were significantly lower relative to the WHO reference as compared to the USCDC reference and the IOTF cut-offs. New growth charts for Pakistani children based on a nationally representative sample should be developed. Nevertheless, shifting to use of the 2007 WHO child growth reference might have important implications for child health programs and primary care pediatric clinics.


PubMed | Ubeera Memorial Research Society
Type: Journal Article | Journal: JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2012

To explore socio-demographic correlates of the health-seeking behaviours among urban and rural population.A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in two districts of Pakistans Punjab province with a random multi-stage cluster sample of 1080 individuals. Bivariate analysis using chi-square test and Fishers exact test was used as the test of trend. Multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Statistical significance was considered at P<0.05.Utilization of the public health facilities (74%) was associated with rural area (P=0.034) and poverty (P=0.001) while use of the private hospitals (41%) was associated with better education (P=0.002) and higher income (P<0.001). When simultaneously adjusted for area, income and education, the poor were more likely to use the public hospitals (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.56-3.37) and less likely to attend a private hospital (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.30-0.60). Main constraints in the public health facility use were cost (25%), dissatisfaction with quality of care (19%) and transportation difficulties (12%). Costs were more likely to be a problem among rural (P=0.010), illiterate (P<0.001) and poor (P<0.001) while dissatisfaction with quality of care was associated with urban area (P<0.001) and poverty (P=0.001).Socio-demographic factors significantly drive the health seeking behaviours among general population. After adjusting for all factors, the poor were more likely to use public hospitals. Costs and dissatisfaction with quality of care were main constraints in utilization of the public health facilities.


PubMed | Ubeera Memorial Research Society
Type: | Journal: The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity | Year: 2012

There is no data on diet- and activity-related behaviors associated with overweight and obesity among Pakistani school-aged children. The study aimed to explore dietary behaviors, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle associated with overweight and obesity, and their socio-demographic correlates, among Pakistani primary school children.A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage random cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Overweight (>+1 SD) and obesity (>+2 SD) were defined using the World Health Organization reference 2007. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Linear regression was used to examine the predictive power of independent variables in relation to body mass index (BMI). Logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained. Statistical significance was considered at P<0.05.Children skipping breakfast (8%), eating fast food and snacksonce a week (43%) and being involved in sedentary lifestyle>one hour a day (49%) were significantly more likely to be overweight and obese while those participating in physical activity>twice a week (53%) were significantly less likely to be overweight and obese (all P<0.01). Skipping breakfast (P<0.001), eating fast food and snacks (P=0.001) and sedentary lifestyle (P<0.001) showed an independent positive association with BMI while physical activity showed an independent inverse association (P=0.001). Skipping breakfast (aOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.22-2.71), eating fast food and snacksonce a week (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.07-1.86), physical activity>twice a week (aOR 0.49, 95% CI 0.34-0.70) and sedentary lifestyle>one hour a day (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.19-2.03) were independent predictors of being overweight. Skipping breakfast had independent inverse association with physical activity (aOR 0.63, 95% CI 0.45-0.89) and eating fast food and snacks had independent positive association with sedentary lifestyle (aOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.49-2.16). Female gender was independently associated with skipping breakfast (aOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.04-2.16). Male gender (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.33-2.02), urban area with high SES (aOR 5.09, 95% CI 3.02-8.60) and higher parental education (aOR 1.74, 95% CI 1.12-2.68) were significant independent predictors of eating fast food and snacksonce a week. Living in the rural area was independently associated (aOR 2.51, 95% CI 1.71-3.68) with physical activity>twice a week. Male gender (aOR 1.60, 95% CI 1.31-1.95), urban area with low SES (aOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.02-2.09), high-income neighborhoods (aOR 1.52, 95% CI 1.02-2.25), higher parental education (aOR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03-2.34) and fewer siblings (aOR 1.38, 95% CI 1.10-1.73) were independent predictors of sedentary lifestyle>one hour a day.Dietary behaviors, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle are independent predictors of overweight and higher BMI among Pakistani primary school children, and are significantly affected by the childs socio-demographic characteristics. These findings support the urgent need to develop a National strategy for diet and physical activity and to implement culturally relevant behavioral interventions in the resource-poor developing country settings.

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