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Nakhmani A.,Boston University | Tannenbaum A.,UAB | Tannenbaum A.,Comprehensive Cancer Center
Pattern Recognition Letters | Year: 2013

We propose two novel distance measures, normalized between 0 and 1, and based on Normalized Cross-Correlation for image matching. These distance measures explicitly utilize the fact that for natural images there is a high correlation between spatially close pixels. Image matching is used in various computer vision tasks, and the requirements to the distance measure are application dependent. Image recognition applications require more shift and rotation robust measures. In contrast, registration and tracking applications require better localization and noise tolerance. In this paper, we explore different advantages of our distance measures, and compare them to other popular measures, including Normalized Cross-Correlation (NCC) and Image Euclidean Distance (IMED). We show which of the proposed measures is more appropriate for tracking, and which is appropriate for image recognition tasks. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The efficacy of behavioural lifestyle interventions (BLI) for weight loss and prevention and treatment of diabetes and hypertension is well established but may vary among racial/ethnic subgroups. This report reviews literature from 1990 to 2012 to determine if outcomes were similar among African Americans (AA) and whites participating in multicentre BLIs funded by the National Institutes of Health. We identified seven relevant trials that reported subgroup analyses for AA. On average, AA lost less weight at 6 months (AA: -1.6 to -7.5kg; whites: -3.8 to -8.2kg), but also had less or similar weight regain compared with whites. There were no reported differences between races in diabetes incidence. Three analyses reported no differences in blood pressure; however, a fourth reported that AA women were the only group that did not experience a significant change in blood pressure. Despite increased attention to cultural relevance, race-specific differences in weight loss persist in trials spanning 20 years; however, risk factor modification was similar across race/ethnic groups. Additional research is needed to understand the mechanisms of risk factor modification, and potential for weight change to promote even greater risk factor modification for AA than has been observed to date. © 2014 World Obesity.

Sheikh-Taha M.,Lebanese American University | Corman L.C.,UAB
Multiple Sclerosis | Year: 2017

Nocardia is a Gram-positive aerobic pathogen that usually affects immunocompromised patients. We report a case of pulmonary infection caused by a rare Nocardia species, Nocardia beijingensis, in a 50-year-old woman who had received alemtuzumab for the treatment of her multiple sclerosis. The invasive pulmonary infection was successfully treated with meropenem. andcopy; SAGE Publications.

Simmons M.,UAB | Meador-Woodruff J.H.,UAB | Sodhi M.S.,UAB
NeuroReport | Year: 2010

RNA editing is a posttranscriptional process which critically modulates the function of several neurotransmitter receptors regulating mood, anxiety, learning, and memory. Data from several postmortem studies have shown increased 5-hydroxytryptamine-2C receptor RNA editing in mood disorders and suicide, and therefore the 5-hydroxytryptamine-2C receptor might be expected to have reduced signal transduction in these patients. In this study, we have tested the hypothesis that the expression levels of the enzymes which catalyze RNA editing, adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) and ADAR2, are also abnormal in suicide. Gene expression was measured in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of individuals from the Stanley Consortium Brain series, which includes patients with schizophrenia (n=15), major depression (n=15), bipolar disorder (n=15), and a comparison group (n=14). Of the psychiatric patients, 20 were suicide victims. ADAR1 expression was found to be significantly increased in major depressive suicide victims compared with patients who did not commit suicide. Neither ADAR1 nor ADAR2 expression was altered in any of the other diagnostic groups. These data indicate that ADAR1 could play a role in the pathophysiology of suicide in patients with major depression. Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Vaphiades M.S.,UAB | Vaphiades M.S.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Bhatti M.T.,Duke University | Lesser R.L.,Yale University
Current Opinion in Ophthalmology | Year: 2012

Purpose of Review: To review ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG), a localized form of myasthenia gravis clinically involving only the extraocular, levator palpebrae superioris, and orbicularis oculi muscles. Recent Findings: Ocular manifestations can masquerade as a variety of ocular motility disorders, including central nervous system disorders and peripheral cranial nerve palsies. While sparing the pupils, the diagnosis and management can be challenging. Summary: Because several diagnostic and treatment options are available for OMG, clinicians must decide the sequence and combination based on the level of disease activity and patient disability. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Eloubeidi M.A.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Cerfolio R.J.,UAB | Bryant A.S.,UAB | Varadarajulu S.,University of Alabama at Birmingham
European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery | Year: 2011

Objective: Esophageal endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is a critical staging tool for patients with esophageal cancer. Previous reports suggest that it is frequently incorrect when it predicts a patient to be N0. The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of EUS-FNA in patients clinically staged N0. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients who had a computed tomography scan, EUS-FNA and a positron emission tomography scan prior to undergoing Ivor Lewis esophagogastrectomy with abdominal and thoracic lymphadenectomy. Results: From January 2002 to June 2009, 207 patients underwent Ivor Lewis esophagogastrectomy by one general thoracic surgeon. Ninety-five patients did not undergo neo-adjuvant therapy. Eighty nine of these patients had an EUS-FNA preoperatively and 82 were staged as N0. Seventy-seven (94%) were confirmed as N0 on final pathology (sensitivity 94%, accuracy 95%). Their overall 3-year Kaplan-Meier survival was 68%. Neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy was given to the remaining 112 patients and 107 had a restaging EUS-FNA. Ninety of these patients were staged by EUS as N0. Seventy patients (78%) were N0 on final pathology (sensitivity 82%, accuracy 68%). There was no EUS-FNA-related procedural morbidity or mortality except for sore throat and nausea. Conclusion: EUS-FNA is very accurate and sensitive when it clinically stages patients with esophageal cancer as N0. In addition, it is even accurate and sensitive when restaging patients as N0 after neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy. These results, which differ from previous reports, are critical for guiding treatment decisions. © 2011 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery.

Singal A.K.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Parker C.,University of Utah | Bowden C.,UAB | Thapar M.,Drexel University | And 2 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2014

Porphyrias are a group of eight metabolic disorders, each resulting from a mutation that affects an enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway. Porphyrias are classified as hepatic or erythropoietic, depending upon the site where the gene defect is predominantly expressed. Clinical phenotypes are classified as follows: (1) acute porphyrias with neurovisceral symptoms: acute intermittent porphyria; delta amino-levulinic acid hydratase deficiency porphyria; hereditary coproporphyria; and variegate porphyria and (2) cutaneous porphyrias with skin blistering and photosensitivity: porphyria cutanea tarda; congenital erythropoietic porphyria; hepatoerythropoietic porphyria and both erythropoietic protoporphyrias: autosomal dominant and X-linked. Liver transplantation (LT) may be needed for recurrent and/or life-threatening acute attack in acute intermittent porphyria or acute liver failure or end-stage chronic liver disease in erythropoietic protoporphyria. LT in acute intermittent porphyria is curative. Erythropoietic protoporphyria patients needing LT should be considered for bone marrow transplantation to achieve cure. Conclusion: This article provides an overview of porphyria with diagnostic approaches and management strategies for specific porphyrias and recommendations for LT with indications, pretransplant evaluation, and posttransplant management. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Hayes R.M.,Vanderbilt University | Wu P.,Vanderbilt University | Shelton R.C.,UAB | Cooper W.O.,Vanderbilt University | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe antidepressant medication use patterns during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated a cohort of 228,876 singleton pregnancies that were covered by Tennessee Medicaid, 1995-2007. RESULTS: Of 23,280 pregnant women with antidepressant prescriptions before pregnancy, 75% of them filled none in the second or third trimesters of pregnancy, and 10.7% of them used antidepressants throughout pregnancy. Filling 1, 2, and ≥3 antidepressant prescriptions during the second trimester was associated with shortened gestational age by 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.3), 3.7 (95% CI, 2.8-4.6), and 4.9 (95% CI, 3.9-5.8) days, when controlled for measured confounders. Third-trimester selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use was associated with infant convulsions; adjusted odds ratios were 1.4 (95% CI, 0.7-2.8); 2.8 (95% CI, 1.9-5.5); and 4.9 (95% CI, 2.6-9.5) for filling 1, 2, and ≥3 prescriptions, respectively. CONCLUSION: Most women discontinue antidepressant medications before or during the first trimester of pregnancy. Second-trimester antidepressant use is associated with preterm birth, and third-trimester selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use is associated with infant convulsions. © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

Barman J.,UAB
Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference | Year: 2011

After stroke, capacity to carry out tasks in the treatment setting with the more-affected arm is a poor index of actual use of that extremity in daily life. However, objective methods currently available for monitoring real-world upper-extremity use only provide information on amount of activity. These methods, which rely on movement sensors worn by patients, do not provide information about type of activity (e.g., functional vs. nonfunctional movement). The benchmark testing reported here evaluated an approach that involves placing sensors on patients and objects. An accelerometer and the transmitter component of a prototype radio frequency proximity sensor were attached to household objects. The receiver component was placed on the experimenter's right arm. This device triggered an on-board radio frequency identification tag to signal proximity when that arm was within 23 cm of the objects. The system detected > 99% of 6 cm or greater movements of objects. When handling of objects by the right or left arm was determined randomly, 100% of right arm trials were detected. No signals were recorded when objects were at rest or moved by the left arm. Testing of this approach, which monitors manipulation of objects (i.e., functional movement), is now warranted in stroke patients.

Hmoud B.,UTMB | Singal A.K.,UAB | Kamath P.S.,Mayo Medical School
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology | Year: 2014

Mesenteric vein thrombosis is increasingly recognized as a cause of mesenteric ischemia. Acute thrombosis commonly presents with abdominal pain and chronic type with features of portal hypertension. Contrast enhanced CT scan of abdomen is quite accurate for diagnosing and differentiating two types of mesenteric venous thrombosis. Prothrombotic state, hematological malignancy, and local abdominal inflammatory conditions are common predisposing conditions. Over the last decade, JAK-2 (janus kinase 2) mutation has emerged as an accurate biomarker for diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasm, an important cause for mesenteric venous thrombosis. Anticoagulation is the treatment of choice for acute mesenteric venous thrombosis. Thrombolysis using systemic or transcatheter route is another option. Patients with peritoneal signs or refractory to initial measures require surgical exploration. Increasing recognition of mesenteric venous thrombosis and use of anticoagulation for treatment has resulted in reduction in the need for surgery with improvement in survival. © 2014 INASL.

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