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Taroni M.,U Series Srl | Zaga V.,Unita Operativa di Pneumotisiologia Territoriale | Bartolomei P.,ENEA | Pacifici R.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita Osservatorio Fumo | And 2 more authors.
Health Physics | Year: 2014

It has been known for a long time that cigarette tobacco contains naturally occurring radioactive nuclides such as 210Pb and 210Po. In this study, the concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po in the 10 most widely sold cigarette brands in Italy during the year 2010 were measured, and the effective dose to smokers has been calculated. The results of this study show that 210Pb concentration ranged from 11.6 to 20.0 mBq cig- with an arithmetic mean of 14.6 mBq cig-, while the activity concentration of Po ranged from 13.1 to 19.0 mBq cig- with an arithmetic mean of 15.7 mBq cig-, thus confirming previous results and showing that the radioactivity concentration was not reduced in the last few years. The annual effective dose for a typical smoker consuming 20 cigarettes per day ranged from an average of 55 μSv y- to about 81 μSv y -. It is finally put in evidence the need to improve the knowledge about crucial data needed for accurate dose assessment deriving from the inhalation of both radioisotopes contained in the cigarettes, namely the dose conversion coefficients, which strongly depend on several parameters such as the inhalation speed through the mouth, the real fraction of radionuclide transferred from cigarette to mainstream smoke, the lung absorption behavior of the radioisotopes inhaled with mainstream smoke, and the AMAD of particles inhaled by smokers. Copyright © 2014 Health Physics Society.


Buccheri G.,University of Salerno | De Lauro E.,University of Salerno | De Martino S.,University of Salerno | Esposito M.,U Series Srl | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2014

Debris flows are among the most hazardous and unpredictable processes whose hazard evaluation requires an understanding of the processes that govern sediment supply, sediment bulking, flow volume, and deposition. In line with this challenge, we estimate the net soil redistribution rates in an area characterized by recurrent instability phenomena using 137Cs as a tracer for monitoring soil dynamics. An extension of this method by applying it to the case of major landslides is addressed. Specifically, surveys of soil 137Cs content at sites in the Pizzo d'Alvano massif (Italy), where a set of particularly damaging landslides occurred on 5-6 May 1998, are reported. Being this region prone to debris flows, two zero-order basins are examined, one of which experienced a landslide event. In that basin deposition is observed, whereas the other shows a net loss of soil. These results appear to be relevant, particularly because the rate of hollow filling could be correlated with the magnitude and/or frequency of debris flow occurrence or with some measure of the hazard presented by individual gullies. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Canducci C.,U Series srl | Canducci C.,University of Bologna | Bartolomei P.,ENEA | Magnani G.,ENEA | And 4 more authors.
Radiocarbon | Year: 2013

A new system for CO2 absorption and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) was designed and developed along with its inherent measurement protocol for radiocarbon analysis in gaseous emissions, fuels, and biobased products. CO2 is chemically trapped as a carbamate in a suitable absorbing solution (3-methoxy-propyl-amine), gravimetrically measured, and analyzed by LSC (using a Quantulus™ 1220) to determine the 14C content. The use of cryogenic traps and a pressure transducer in the system prevents the need for closed-loop recirculation or additional steps to maximize CO2 capture in a short amount of time. The choice of PTFE vials used both for CO2 pretreatment and subsequent LSC analysis provides the opportunity to significantly reduce the background counting down to 40% with respect to the low-40K glass vials. This upgrade resulted in improving the maximum detectable age back to 36,000 yr BP in routine measurements. This method therefore turns out to be flexible enough to be applied for 14C dating as well as to differentiate between modern and fossil carbon. © 2013 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.


De Santis F.,U Series Srl | De Santis F.,Polytechnic University of Turin | De Salve M.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Masucci A.,Azienda Ospedaliera S. Giuseppe Moscati | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry | Year: 2015

In this paper, we compare the 234U/238U activity ratios (ARs) in various internal tissues and organs of a goat kid with the ingested 234U/238U AR to assess isotopic fractionation. The results obtained from soft tissues (i.e., the kidneys, liver, lung, and bladder) that undergo indirect assimilation of uranium from the feed through the bloodstream suggest an increase in the 234U/238U AR. In contrast, the intestine, bones and feces had the same AR values as the feed. Finally, we broadly assess uranium transfer from the feed to the animal based on the concentration ratio and the feed transfer coefficient. © 2015, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.


Rossetti M.,U Series Srl | Esposito M.,U Series Srl
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2015

The indoor radon exposition is a widely recognised health hazard, so specific laws and regulations have been produced in many countries and so-called radon-risk maps have consequently been produced. In Italy the regulation applies to general workplaces and a national survey was carried out in the 1990s to evaluate the exposure to radon in dwellings. Failing a national coordinated mapping programme, some Italian regions performed a survey to identify radon-prone areas, nevertheless with different methodologies. In this work a national map of the average annual radon concentration levels in underground workplaces, obtained from the results of 8695 annual indoor radon measurements carried out by U-Series laboratory between 2003 and 2010, was presented. Due to underground locations, the mean radon concentration is higher than that from previous map elaborated for dwellings and a significant radon concentration was also found in Regions traditionally considered as low-risk areas. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


De Pin G.,Polytechnic University of Turin | De Pin G.,U Series Srl | Dulla S.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Esposito M.,U Series Srl
Radiation Measurements | Year: 2016

The CR-39 detectors are widely used as passive radon dosimeters, as well as in physics laboratories or for industrial applications. For what concerns radon monitoring, the calibration curve which is usually adopted corresponds to a linear relation between the actual etched track density and the track density counted by an automatic acquisition system. This linear calibration provides very accurate radon exposure assessments in a restricted range of etched track density, however it neglects the effect of the tracks overlapping that becomes as relevant as the track density increases. In the present work the mathematical expression of the area covered by a set of uniformly distributed tracks is deduced. This result allows then to infer the probability that the system acquires the right track density, providing a general calibration curve for a solid state radon track detector. The process of track production and reading routine is also simulated adopting a Monte Carlo approach, showing that the obtained results are in agreement with the function proposed as calibration curve. Moreover, a linear dependence between the track average area and the rate parameter of the calibration curve has been observed. Finally a semi-empirical correlation based on the previous results is proposed. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | U Series Srl
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Radiation protection dosimetry | Year: 2015

The indoor radon exposition is a widely recognised health hazard, so specific laws and regulations have been produced in many countries and so-called radon-risk maps have consequently been produced. In Italy the regulation applies to general workplaces and a national survey was carried out in the 1990s to evaluate the exposure to radon in dwellings. Failing a national coordinated mapping programme, some Italian regions performed a survey to identify radon-prone areas, nevertheless with different methodologies. In this work a national map of the average annual radon concentration levels in underground workplaces, obtained from the results of 8695 annual indoor radon measurements carried out by U-Series laboratory between 2003 and 2010, was presented. Due to underground locations, the mean radon concentration is higher than that from previous map elaborated for dwellings and a significant radon concentration was also found in Regions traditionally considered as low-risk areas.

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