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Tiwari A.K.,Ch iversity | Bharti Y.,Ch iversity | Tripathi S.,Ch iversity | Mishra N.,Ch iversity | And 5 more authors.
Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica | Year: 2010

Research on sugarcane biotechnology began in the 1960s with in vitro culture. Serious efforts to improve sugarcane crops by molecular approaches have commenced only in the past two decades. There is an increasing pressure worldwide to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in order to sustain profitable sugar industries, while there are several diseases attacking sugarcane and reducing the quality of the crop. Biotechnological approaches for sugarcane improvement have been applied in the areas of: (1) cell and tissue culture for rapid propagation genetic transformation and molecular breeding, (2) engineering novel genes into commercial cultivars, (3) molecular diagnostics of sugarcane pathogens, (4) developing genetic maps using molecular marker technology, (5) understanding the molecular basis of sucrose accumulation in the stem, (6) molecular testing of plants for clonal fidelity, (7) variety identification and (8) molecular characterization of various traits. Most of the current research in sugarcane biotechnology is recently focused primarily on transgenic and marker assisted breeding. Advancements have made it possible to sequence the complete genome of increasingly complex organisms and to clone and transfer individual genes to engineer new traits.

Dubey D.,Gorakhpur University | Pandey N.,Gorakhpur University | Tiwari A.K.,UP Council of Sugarcane Research | Upadhyaya P.P.,Gorakhpur University
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2015

Papaya leaf curl disease (PLCD) was recorded with 5–35% incidence at six districts of Eastern Uttar Pradesh during survey. The characteristic symptoms observed were severe downward leaf curling, swelling of veins, twisting and reduction of petioles, inverted leaf bowls and stunted growth of the entire plant which bore only few small and distorted fruit. The virus isolate was identified as Papaya leaf curl virus (PaLCuV).The PaLCuV isolate was successfully transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) but not by mechanical (sap) transmission on Carica papaya plants. Plants could be proved efficiently from infected to healthy C. papaya, Capsicum annuum, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, Crotalaria juncea, Ageratum conyzoides, Zinnia elegans, Datura stramonium and Petunia hybrida. Symptomatic samples of these plants were tested with polyclonal antiserum of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus by DAC-ELISA test showed the positive relationship of the samples with geminivirus. On the basis of symptomatology, whitefly transmission, host range studies and serological relationship, the isolate was identified as whitefly transmitted geminivirus. To identify potential varietal resistances source to PaLCuV, five cultivars of C. papaya were tested against PaLCuV using whitefly insects to transmit the infection. Results revealed that two cultivars (Washington and Ranchi Dwarf) were found to be moderately resistant. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Verma A.K.,UP Council of Sugarcane Research | Verma A.K.,National Botanical Research Institute | Upadhyay S.K.,National Botanical Research Institute | Verma P.C.,National Botanical Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Plant Biology | Year: 2011

Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC and sucrose synthase (SS; EC are key enzymes in the synthesis and breakdown of sucrose in sugarcane. The activities of internodal SPS and SS, as well as transcript expression were determined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR at different developmental stages of high and low sucrose accumulating sugarcane cultivars. SPS activity and transcript expression was higher in mature internodes compared with immature internodes in all the studied cultivars. However, high sugar cultivars showed increased transcript expression and enzyme activity of SPS compared to low sugar cultivars at all developmental stages. SS activity was higher in immature internodes than in mature internodes in all cultivars; SS transcript expression showed a similar pattern. Our studies demonstrate that SPS activity was positively correlated with sucrose and negatively correlated with hexose sugars. However, SS activity was negatively correlated with sucrose and positively correlated with hexose sugars. The present study opens the possibility for improvement of sugarcane cultivars by increasing expression of the respective enzymes using transgene technology. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

Kumar P.,GF College | Agarwal A.,GF College | Tiwari A.K.,UP Council of Sugarcane Research | Lal M.,UP Council of Sugarcane Research | Jabri M.R.A.,GF College
Sugar Tech | Year: 2012

Red rot behavior of 50 somaclones of sugarcane variety CoS 88230, was studied by plug and nodal methods of inoculation using a mixture of four isolates of Colletotrichum falcatum. The results revealed that most of the somaclones had red rot susceptibility to varying degrees except four somaclones viz. SC-15, 20, 22 and 30, which were found moderately resistant (MR) by plug method of inoculation. Two somaclones viz. SC-22 and 30 were found resistant by nodal method of inoculation. Using plug method of inoculation, the aforesaid four somaclones viz. SC-15, 20, 22 and 30 were also found moderately resistant against all the four strains if tested individually, according to 0-9 scale except against isolate R 8411. These somaclones were better in red rot resistance than the donor variety CoS 88230. The wide variations observed in a number of traits along with red rot behavior in the somaclonal population was possibly due to complex genetic nature and existence of chromosomal mosaicism in commercial hybrid varieties of sugarcane. © 2012 Society for Sugar Research & Promotion.

Singh A.K.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums | Singh S.N.,Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research | Rao A.K.,UP Council of Sugarcane Research | Kumar A.,UP Council of Sugarcane Research
Sugar Tech | Year: 2013

A field experiment was conducted at the research farm of U. P. Council of Sugarcane Research, Shahjahanpur, India for two consecutive years during autumn seasons of 2007-2009 and 2008-2010 to compare modified trench method of sugarcane planting with other prevalent planting methods for its production potentiality and uptake of nutrients and soil fertility status. The experiment consisting of five planting method treatments viz., conventional furrow planting at 90 cm apart (T1), deep furrow (20 cm) planting at 90 cm apart covering setts with 2. 5 cm of soil layer (T2), paired row furrow planting at 120:60:120 cm (T3), paired row deep furrow (20 cm) planting at 120:60:120 cm covering setts with 2. 5 cm of soil layer (T4) and modified trench planting at 120 cm apart placing setts across the furrow and covering them with 2. 5 cm of soil layer (T5) was laid out in randomized block design with five replications. Experimental results revealed that cane yield obtained under modified trench method of planting was 18. 72, 23. 87, 21. 22, and 27. 01 % higher than that of T4, T3, T2, and T1 treatments, respectively. Significantly highest uptake of N, P, and K (168. 60, 87. 31, and 254. 46 kg/ha, respectively) was noticed under modified trench method of planting. The soil fertility status of soil observed initially and after the harvest of sugarcane crop clearly indicated positive effect of modified trench method of planting on soil fertility status. Thus, a favourable soil fertility helped better uptake of nutrients and cane growth, which ultimately resulted in higher cane yield under modified trench method of sugarcane planting. © 2013 Society for Sugar Research & Promotion.

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