UP Council of Sugarcane Research

India

UP Council of Sugarcane Research

India

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PubMed | Up Council Of Sugarcane Research, Utkal University, Jamia Hamdard University and National Research Center on Plant Biotechnology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Plant cell reports | Year: 2016

Single nucleotide polymorphism in sugar pathway and disease resistance genes showing genetic association with sugar content and red rot resistance would be useful in marker-assisted genetic improvement of sugarcane. Validation and genotyping of potential sequence variants in candidate genes are necessary to understand their functional significance and trait association potential. We discovered, characterized, validated and genotyped SNPs and InDels in sugar pathway and disease resistance genes of Saccharum complex and sugarcane varieties using amplicon sequencing and CAPS assays. The SNPs were abundant in the non-coding 3UTRs than 5UTRs and coding sequences depicting a strong bias toward C to T transition substitutions than transversions. Sequencing of cloned amplicons validated 61.6 and 45.2% SNPs detected in silico in 21 sugar pathway and 16 disease resistance genes, respectively. Sixteen SNPs in four sugar pathway genes and 10 SNPs in nine disease resistance genes were validated through cost-effective CAPS assay. Functional and adaptive significance of SNP and protein haplotypes identified in sugar pathway and disease resistance genes was assessed by correlating their allelic variation with missense amino acid substitutions in the functional domains, alteration in protein structure models and possible modulation of catalytic enzyme activity in contrasting high and low sugar and moderately red rot resistant and highly susceptible sugarcane genotypes. A strong genetic association of five SNPs in the sugar pathway and disease resistance genes, and an InDel marker in the promoter sequence of sucrose synthase-2 gene, with sugar content and red rot resistance, was evident. The functionally relevant SNPs and InDels, detected and validated in sugar pathway and disease resistance genes, and genic CAPS markers designed, would be of immense use in marker-assisted genetic improvement of sugarcane for sugar content and disease resistance.


Verma A.K.,Up Council Of Sugarcane Research | Verma A.K.,National Botanical Research Institute | Upadhyay S.K.,National Botanical Research Institute | Verma P.C.,National Botanical Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Plant Biology | Year: 2011

Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14) and sucrose synthase (SS; EC 2.4.1.13) are key enzymes in the synthesis and breakdown of sucrose in sugarcane. The activities of internodal SPS and SS, as well as transcript expression were determined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR at different developmental stages of high and low sucrose accumulating sugarcane cultivars. SPS activity and transcript expression was higher in mature internodes compared with immature internodes in all the studied cultivars. However, high sugar cultivars showed increased transcript expression and enzyme activity of SPS compared to low sugar cultivars at all developmental stages. SS activity was higher in immature internodes than in mature internodes in all cultivars; SS transcript expression showed a similar pattern. Our studies demonstrate that SPS activity was positively correlated with sucrose and negatively correlated with hexose sugars. However, SS activity was negatively correlated with sucrose and positively correlated with hexose sugars. The present study opens the possibility for improvement of sugarcane cultivars by increasing expression of the respective enzymes using transgene technology. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.


Lal M.,Up Council Of Sugarcane Research | Tiwari A.K.,Up Council Of Sugarcane Research | Gupta G.N.,Up Council Of Sugarcane Research | Kavita,Up Council Of Sugarcane Research
Sugar Tech | Year: 2015

Tissue culture techniques are now becoming important tools of crop improvement and rapid multiplication of selected clones. There has been considerable interest in applying these techniques in breeding, propagation, disease elimination, rejuvenation of older varieties, development of clones suitable for abiotic and biotic stresses, conservation of genetic resources etc. In vitro micropropagation is now drawing special attention for multiplication of new varieties on large scale in comparatively shorter period of time in several crops including sugarcane. Despite several advantages of applying micropropagation technique in sugarcane such as quick multiplication of newly released varieties; rejuvenation of old deteriorated varieties; production of disease free seed; easy transportation of seed material; elimination of viruses; high cane productivity and sugar yield etc., this technique is not gaining popularity up to the desired extent. There are several constraints like microbial contamination, phenolics secretion from cultured explants, shoot vitrification, thin canes in tissue culture raised crops, high cost of production and appearance of some variants in micropropagated population. The present article describes some of the problems encountered during in vitro micropropagation of sugarcane on commercial scale. Though some problems have now been resolved to considerable extents which have been described in this review. However, some constraints still require intensive research work to be resolved so that a safe and efficient exploitation of this technique can be ensured in sugarcane seed production programme. © 2014, Society for Sugar Research & Promotion.


Kumar P.,Gf College | Agarwal A.,Gf College | Tiwari A.K.,Up Council Of Sugarcane Research | Lal M.,Up Council Of Sugarcane Research | Jabri M.R.A.,Gf College
Sugar Tech | Year: 2012

Red rot behavior of 50 somaclones of sugarcane variety CoS 88230, was studied by plug and nodal methods of inoculation using a mixture of four isolates of Colletotrichum falcatum. The results revealed that most of the somaclones had red rot susceptibility to varying degrees except four somaclones viz. SC-15, 20, 22 and 30, which were found moderately resistant (MR) by plug method of inoculation. Two somaclones viz. SC-22 and 30 were found resistant by nodal method of inoculation. Using plug method of inoculation, the aforesaid four somaclones viz. SC-15, 20, 22 and 30 were also found moderately resistant against all the four strains if tested individually, according to 0-9 scale except against isolate R 8411. These somaclones were better in red rot resistance than the donor variety CoS 88230. The wide variations observed in a number of traits along with red rot behavior in the somaclonal population was possibly due to complex genetic nature and existence of chromosomal mosaicism in commercial hybrid varieties of sugarcane. © 2012 Society for Sugar Research & Promotion.


Verma A.K.,Up Council Of Sugarcane Research | Verma A.K.,National Botanical Research Institute | Singh S.B.,Up Council Of Sugarcane Research | Agarwal A.K.,Up Council Of Sugarcane Research | Solomon S.,Indian Institute of Sugacane Research
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2012

Sugarcane cultivars of two maturity groups, early and late were harvested in the months of March, April, May, and June 2007. The harvested sugarcanes were stored for 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120. h. The average maximum and minimum atmospheric temperatures in these months were 35.5, 37.8, 39.8 and 40.9 °C and 16.9, 18.4, 19.4, 20.8 °C, respectively. Metabolic changes in the content of sucrose in sugarcane juice in relation to the activities of acid invertase (AI), neutral invertase (NI) enzymes, acidity, and loss in sugarcane weight were studied. Extractable sucrose percent in juice declined significantly with increasing storage periods and temperature. Activities of enzymes AI and NI showed a sharp increase during 0-120. h of storage. Activities of both enzymes were significantly negatively correlated with the sucrose percent in juice. There was a rapid increase in acidity and loss in sugarcane weight during storage, and the rate was higher at higher temperatures. Significant differences in the reduction of sucrose percent in different cultivars during storage were found. These results might be helpful to minimize sucrose losses during storage of sugarcane from late harvests and for developing hybrids with improved storage properties. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..


Singh P.,Up Council Of Sugarcane Research | Singh S.P.,Up Council Of Sugarcane Research | Singh J.P.,Up Council Of Sugarcane Research | Sharma B.L.,Up Council Of Sugarcane Research
Sugar Tech | Year: 2016

An experiment was conducted on two groups of sugarcane accessions 15 old (out of cultivation) and 15 new (under cultivation) at the farm of Sugarcane Research and Seed Multiplication Centre, Katya Sadat, Gazipur, U.P. (India) during three consecutive autumn planting seasons 2009–2011 to 2011–2013. The mean value of the characters revealed improvement in different traits which ranged from 8.77 to 56.87 % selection differential rate. High to moderate coefficient of variance was observed for germination, number of shoots, number of millable canes, stalk height, stalk thickness, stalk weight, and cane yield in both the populations. The values of genotypic and phenotypic correlation were higher in new varieties than the old ones for each trait. Further, the value of genotypic correlation was also higher than the phenotypic correlation in both the populations for respective characters. Heritability and correlation response are important criteria for the selection of strong parentage either from the old or new population. Such combinations may be helpful in increasing the cane yield as well as sugar content in the stalk, especially in alkaline condition. The selection of potential parents from the newer population may be more beneficial than the older one except for the selection for some specific desired traits present in the old population. The entries namely CoSe 98231, CoSe 92423, CoSe 95422, CoSe 96436, BO 91, CoLk 8102, and UP 9530 were found better than other entries tested. So it may be suggested that these varieties may be used as parentage in future breeding program to evolve the genetically superior line, which may combine cane yield along with sugar content for alkaline condition area. © 2016 Society for Sugar Research & Promotion


Iqbal A.,Up Council Of Sugarcane Research | Sharma M.L.,Up Council Of Sugarcane Research
Plant Archives | Year: 2012

A comparative study was made on the levels of activity of 4 sugar regulating enzymes viz., acid invertase (AI), neutral invertase (NI), sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SS) in three early (i.e., CoS 96268, CoJ 64, CoS 8272) and three mid-late maturing (i.e. CoS 767, CoSe 1434, CoS 7250) varieties of sugarcane during the formative phase (Dec. 2011 to March 2012) at monthly interval. The result revealed that the levels of activity of AI and NI enzymes were higher in the early maturing than in mid-late maturing varieties, while the enzyme SPS and SS showed almost similar trend in all the six varieties during the formative stage. The results also revealed that the levels of AI and NI activities increased rapidly in January (cooler month) as compared to February and March. On the other hand, the levels of activity of both SPS and SS enzymes remained almost stationary during the cooler months (December and January) but there was a rapid increase in the levels of their activity as the temperature increased in the months of February and March. This increase was more pronounced in case of SPS activity which showed about 5 fold increase from December to March as compared to 2 fold increase in SS activity during the same period. These results suggested that AI and NI enzyme may be used as molecular markers for determining the maturity behavior of sugarcane varieties at an early stage of plant growth.


Verma A.K.,Up Council Of Sugarcane Research | Verma A.K.,National Botanical Research Institute | Upadhyay S.K.,National Botanical Research Institute | Srivastava M.K.,Guangxi Academy of Agricultural science | And 3 more authors.
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2011

Soluble acid invertase (SAI, EC 3. 2. 1. 26), catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose into hexose sugars, and it has been considered a key enzyme for carbohydrate metabolism. In the present study, the activity of SAI enzyme was determined to establish a correlation between the change in transcript levels and enzyme activity in high and low sugar accumulating sugarcane cultivars, in various internodal tissues at different developmental stages. A decrease in SAI activity and transcript levels was observed with age, during all the developmental stages in both the cultivars. A negative correlation between SAI activity and sucrose content was observed in mature and immature internodes; however, there was a positive correlation between SAI activity and content of hexose sugars. These results imply that SAI plays a crucial role in sucrose partitioning in various intermodal tissues in high and low sugar cultivars. In addition to this, the changes in enzyme activity also resulted in changes in transcript level. © 2011 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.


Saxena P.,Up Council Of Sugarcane Research | Srivastava R.P.,Up Council Of Sugarcane Research | Sharma M.L.,Up Council Of Sugarcane Research
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2010

In the present era of economic liberalization, sugar has become an important commodity for human consumption as well as trade. The global importance of this versatile sweetner could be judged by the fact that its consumption is expected to go much high upto 2020 AD as compared to the present level. Sugarcane plant, once detached from ground loses its machinery to synthesize sucrose. Thus a well ripened harvested crop may lose its sugar within a few days, which tends to increase further due to high ambient temperature. These loses tend to increase during processing, especially in those units where hygienic conditions are rather unsatisfactory. The post harvest sugar lose is one of the most vexing problems of sugar industry and has attracted widespread attention in the recent years. A study was carried out to examine the effect of staling h on three early and three mid-late maturing varieties in view of biochemical changes occurred in staled cane juice from 0 h-96 h. The ambient temperature ranged around 40-420C. TSS, sucrose, purity coefficient, dextran, proteins, free amino acid contents, acid and neutral invertases were assayed. The sucrose content rapidly deteriorated after 24 h staling. The invert sugar and dextran content increased rapidly after 48 h. free amino acid contents increased rapidly up to 72 h. Free amino acid contents were higher in early group of varieties than mid-late group of varieties. Findings indicated that both the group of varieties fastly deteriorated sucrose content after 24 h. Higher dextran formation was observed after 48 h in most of the early varieties due to higher concentration of sucrose thereby TSS increased during staling periods. It may be inferred that the early maturing varieties should be crushed within 24 h and mid-late maturing varieties within 48 h after harvest under high ambient temperature. Mid-late maturing varieties showed lower values of dextran, free amino acid content, protein and invertase activities. Therefore, these varieties were found capable in retaining quality characters up to longer durations after harvest. It has also been observed that mid-late varieties having lower sucrose content than early varieties, deteriorated less during staling. In the cane juice of early maturing varieties, where sucrose and brix values were higher than mid-late, produced relatively higher invertase activities, dextran, free amino acid content and proteins in the late staling h possibly due to higher microbial infestation.


Dubey D.,Gorakhpur University | Pandey N.,Gorakhpur University | Tiwari A.K.,Up Council Of Sugarcane Research | Upadhyaya P.P.,Gorakhpur University
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2015

Papaya leaf curl disease (PLCD) was recorded with 5–35% incidence at six districts of Eastern Uttar Pradesh during survey. The characteristic symptoms observed were severe downward leaf curling, swelling of veins, twisting and reduction of petioles, inverted leaf bowls and stunted growth of the entire plant which bore only few small and distorted fruit. The virus isolate was identified as Papaya leaf curl virus (PaLCuV).The PaLCuV isolate was successfully transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) but not by mechanical (sap) transmission on Carica papaya plants. Plants could be proved efficiently from infected to healthy C. papaya, Capsicum annuum, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, Crotalaria juncea, Ageratum conyzoides, Zinnia elegans, Datura stramonium and Petunia hybrida. Symptomatic samples of these plants were tested with polyclonal antiserum of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus by DAC-ELISA test showed the positive relationship of the samples with geminivirus. On the basis of symptomatology, whitefly transmission, host range studies and serological relationship, the isolate was identified as whitefly transmitted geminivirus. To identify potential varietal resistances source to PaLCuV, five cultivars of C. papaya were tested against PaLCuV using whitefly insects to transmit the infection. Results revealed that two cultivars (Washington and Ranchi Dwarf) were found to be moderately resistant. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

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