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Hualian, Taiwan

Tzu Chi University, or TCU, is a private university located in Hualien City, Hualien County, Taiwan. It was founded by the Tzu Chi Foundation and is famous in Taiwan for the quality of the medical education it provides. TCU has strong ties with Hualien Tzu Chi General Hospital as well as five teaching hospitals in other parts of Taiwan. Wikipedia.

Purpose: Intravesical injection of onabotulinumtoxinA is effective for idiopathic detrusor overactivity refractory to antimuscarinics. However, safety is a major concern, especially in elderly individuals. We investigated the efficacy and safety of intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA injection for refractory idiopathic detrusor overactivity in the frail elderly population. Materials and Methods: A total of 166 patients with urodynamic idiopathic detrusor overactivity refractory to previous antimuscarinics for more than 3 months received 1 intravesical 100 U onabotulinumtoxinA injection from 2004 to 2009. Frail elderly was defined as age greater than 65 years and 3 or more of certain criteria, including unintentional weight loss, self-reported exhaustion, weakness, slow walking speed and/or low physical activity. Treatment results were assessed by the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition, voiding diary, urodynamic parameters and Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival plots. Results: We evaluated 61 frail elderly patients, 63 who were elderly without frailty and 42 younger than 65 years. Large post-void residual urine volume (greater than 150 ml) after onabotulinumtoxinA injection was significantly higher in the frail elderly group than in the other groups (60.7% vs 39.7% and 35.7%, respectively, p = 0.018). Urinary retention developed in 7 frail elderly patients (11.5%), 4 (6.3%) who were elderly without frailty and 1 younger patient (2.4%) (p = 0.203). Recovery duration was significantly longer in frail elderly patients. The cumulative success rate was significantly lower in the frail elderly group than in the other 2 groups (p = 0.009). Conclusions: Although safety and efficacy were similar between elderly patients without frailty and younger patients, an increased risk of large post-void residual urine volume and a lower long-term success rate in frail elderly patients were noted after intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA injection for refractory idiopathic detrusor overactivity. © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Source

Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of onabotulinumtoxinA injections at bladder base/trigone and compare with injections at bladder body or bladder body/trigone for the treatment of idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO) refractory to antimuscarinics. Materials and Methods A single blind, randomized, paralleled, actively controlled trial was performed in patients with urodynamically proven IDO who failed antimuscarinic therapy. Patients were randomly assigned to receive intravesical injections of 100 U of onabotulinumtoxinA into three different bladder sites. All treatments were evaluated by voiding diary variables, urgency severity score, urodynamic studies, and patient perception of bladder condition. Long-term success rates over 12 months were also determined. Results Among the patients, 37 were randomized to injections in the bladder body, 35 into the bladder body/trigone, and 33 into the bladder base/trigone. Successful results were reported in 76 (72%) patients at 3 months: 26 (70%) in the bladder body group, 26 (74%) in the bladder body/trigone group, and 24 (73%) in the bladder base/trigone group. There were no significant differences in success rates, changes in urgency and urgency incontinence episodes, urodynamic variables, or long-term success rates among the three subgroups. The incidence of adverse events was similar among three groups. No vesicoureteral reflux was noted in all patients with or without involving trigone injection. Conclusion Intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA injection is an effective treatment for IDO regardless of the bladder injection site. Bladder base/trigone injection is as safe and effective as bladder body injections with or without trigone involvement. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

Aims To evaluate the efficacy and safety of repeated intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) injections for treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). Patients and methods Patients confirmed to have IC/BPS and refractory to conventional treatments were treated with intravesical injections of 100 U of BoNT-A plus hydrodistention every 6 months for up to four times. Primary end-point was 6 months after the fourth BoNT-A injection. Measured parameters included O'Leary-Sant symptom score (OSS) including symptom and problem indexes (ICSI/ICPI), visual analogue score (VAS) for pain, voiding diary variables, urodynamic parameters, maximal bladder capacity (MBC), glomerulation grade, and global response assessment (GRA). Multiple measurements and Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used for comparison between groups. Results In overall patients, GRA, OSS, ICSI and ICPI scores, VAS, functional bladder capacity (FBC) and cystometric bladder capacity (CBC) all showed significant improvement. The glomerulation grade decreased (1.77 ± 1.06 vs. 1.19 ± 1.05, p = 0.026), but MBC remained unchanged. Among 31 patients, 19 (61%) had a GRA ≥ 2 and 12 (39%) had a GRA < 2 at end-point. Patients with a GRA ≥ 2 had significantly greater changes in OSS, ICPI, VAS, FBC and CBC than patients with a GRA < 2. Extended study revealed that persistent symptomatic improvement lasted 6-12 months in seven, 13-22 months in six and 23-51 months in six after the fourth BoNT-A injection. Five women who had GRA < 2 were found to have Hunner's ulcer. Lack of control is the main limitation. Conclusion Four repeated intravesical BoNT-A injections were safe and effective for symptom and pain relief and increased bladder capacity for treatment of IC/BPS. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Wang C.-C.,Tzu Chi University
American Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2016

OBJECTIVES:This study aims to assess whether quantitative HBsAg can predict durability of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients stopping entecavir (ETV) treatment.METHODS:We conducted a multicenter study on non-cirrhotic CHB patients who discontinued ETV treatment. The primary end points were clinical relapse and sustained viral response (SVR), which was defined as undetectable serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels (<6 IU/ml) at 12 months off-therapy.RESULTS:A total of 117 consecutive CHB patients were enrolled. Among them, 93 patients who received more than 1-year off-therapy follow-up were included for the final analysis. The duration of off-therapy follow-up was 24.8±11.6 months. All 12 patients who did not achieve therapeutic end points had clinical relapse. In 81 patients who achieved therapeutic end points, clinical relapse and SVR were observed in 44 (54.3%) and 11 (13.6%) patients, respectively. The serum HBV DNA at 3 months and 6 months off-therapy were associated with clinical relapse over time, whereas quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg) level at 6 months off-therapy had a marginal effect. Furthermore, end-of-treatment qHBsAg levels were associated with SVR (P=0.009).CONCLUSIONS:The serum qHBsAg level off-therapy can predict durability of ETV-treated CHB patients. It may guide clinicians to select which patients can maintain sustained viral suppression or need retreatment after discontinuing ETV treatment.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 5 April 2016; doi:10.1038/ajg.2016.109. © 2016 American College of Gastroenterology Source

Hsieh Y.H.,Tzu Chi University | Koo M.,University of Toronto | Leung F.W.,1 Sepulveda Ambulatory Care Center
The American journal of gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Minimal sedation obviates patient recovery burdens, but intolerable pain limits success of cecal intubation. Painless or minimally uncomfortable insertion ensures success of cecal intubation, current patient satisfaction, and willingness to repeat future colonoscopy with minimal sedation. Water immersion (WI) and water exchange (WE), when separately compared with air insufflation (AI), significantly reduced insertion pain. To assess comparative effectiveness, we conducted a randomized controlled trial with head-to-head comparison of these three methods. We hypothesized that WE could produce the highest proportion of patients reporting painless insertion. This prospective patient-blinded trial (NCT01535326) enrolled minimally sedated (25 mg intramuscular meperidine) patients randomized to AI, WI, or WE (90 patients/group) to aid insertion. The previously validated primary outcome was the proportion of patients reporting painless insertion. Painless insertion was reported by 30.0% (AI), 43.3% (WI), and 61.1% (WE) of patients (P<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that, after adjusting for gender, body mass index, abdominal compression, position change, insertion time to cecum, and length of scope at cecum, only WE was significantly associated with painless insertion compared with AI (odds ratio (OR)=0.08, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.03-0.24, P<0.001) or WI (OR=0.14, 95% CI=0.05-0.40, P<0.001). Adenoma detection rate (ADR) in the right (cecum and ascending) colon was 11.1% (AI), 14.4% (WI), and 26.7% (WE) (P=0.015). The limitations included single site study with unblinded colonoscopist and assistant. This head-to-head comparison of AI vs. WI vs. WE confirmed that WE was superior to WI and AI, with a significantly greater proportion of patients reporting painless insertion. The significantly higher ADR in the right colon in the WE group warrants further investigations. Source

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