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Hualian, Taiwan

Chiu S.C.,Taichung Tzu Chi Hospital | Huang S.Y.,Mackay Memorial Hospital | Chen S.P.,Tzu Chi Stem Cells Center | Su C.C.,Changhua Christian Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND:Tanshinone IIA (Tan-IIA) is one of the major lipophilic components isolated from the root of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix. We explored the mechanisms of cell death induced by Tan-IIA treatment in prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.METHODS:Cells were treated with Tan-IIA and growth inhibition was assessed. Cell cycle profiles after Tan-IIA treatment were determined by flow cytometry. Expression levels of cell cycle regulatory proteins and apoptosis-related proteins were determined after Tan-IIA treatment. Expression levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-regulated genes were determined to investigate their role in Tan-IIA-induced cell death. GADD153 expression was knocked down by small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection. Rate of cell death and proliferation was obtained by 3-(4,5-dimethyl thizol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Antitumor activity of Tan-IIA was performed in LNCaP xenograft model.RESULTS:Our results showed that Tan-IIA caused prostate cancer cell death in a dose-dependent manner, and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase was noted, in LNCaP cells. The G0/G1 phase arrest correlated with increase levels of CDK inhibitors (p16, p21 and p27) and decrease of the checkpoint proteins. Tan-IIA also induced ER stress in prostate cancer cells: activation and nuclear translocation of GADD153/CCAAT/enhancer- binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP) were identified, and increased expression of the downstream molecules GRP78/BiP, inositol-requiring protein-1 and GADD153/CHOP were evidenced. Blockage of GADD153/CHOP expression by siRNA reduced Tan-IIA-induced cell death in LNCaP cells. Tan-IIA also suppressed LNCaP xenograft tumor growth, causing 86.4% reduction in tumor volume after 13 days of treatment.CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that Tan-IIA causes G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in LNCaP cells and its cytotoxicity is mediated at least partly by ER stress induction. These data provide evidence supporting Tan-IIA as a potential anticancer agent by inducing ER stress in prostate cancer. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source


Lin P.-C.,China Medical University at Taichung | Chiou T.-W.,National Dong Hwa University | Liu P.-Y.,China Medical University at Taichung | Chen S.-P.,Tzu Chi Stem Cells Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Few rejuvenation and antiaging markers are used to evaluate food supplements. We measured three markers in peripheral blood to evaluate the antiaging effects of a food supplement containing placental extract. Samples were evaluated for CD34+ cells, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), and telomerase activity, which are all markers related to aging. To control the quality of this food supplement, five active components were monitored. In total, we examined 44 individuals who took the food supplement from 1.2 months to 23 months; the average number of CD34+ cells was almost 6-fold higher in the experimental group compared with the control group. Food supplement intake did not change serum IGF1 levels significantly. Finally, the average telomerase activity was 30 higher in the subjects taking this food supplement. In summary, our results suggest that the placental extract in the food supplement might contribute to rejuvenation and antiaging. Copyright © 2012 Po-Cheng Lin et al. Source


Chiu S.-C.,Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital | Chen S.-P.,Tzu Chi Stem Cells Center | Huang S.-Y.,Mackay Memorial Hospital | Wang M.-J.,Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: N-butylidenephthalide (BP) exhibits antitumor effect in a variety of cancer cell lines. The objective of this study was to obtain additional insights into the mechanisms involved in BP induced cell death in human prostate cancer cells. Methods/Principal Findings: Two human prostate cancer cell lines, PC-3 and LNCaP, were treated with BP, and subsequently evaluated for their viability and cell cycle profiles. BP caused cell cycle arrest and cell death in both cell lines. The G0/G1 phase arrest was correlated with increase levels of CDK inhibitors (p16, p21 and p27) and decrease of the checkpoint proteins. To determine the mechanisms of BP-induced growth arrest and cell death in prostate cancer cell lines, we performed a microarray study to identify alterations in gene expression induced by BP in the LNCaP cells. Several BP-induced genes, including the GADD153/CHOP, an endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress)-regulated gene, were identified. BP-induced ER stress was evidenced by increased expression of the downstream molecules GRP78/BiP, IRE1-α and GADD153/CHOP in both cell lines. Blockage of IRE1-α or GADD153/CHOP expression by siRNA significantly reduced BP-induced cell death in LNCaP cells. Furthermore, blockage of JNK1/2 signaling by JNK siRNA resulted in decreased expression of IRE1-α and GADD153/CHOP genes, implicating that BP-induced ER stress may be elicited via JNK1/2 signaling in prostate cancer cells. BP also suppressed LNCaP xenograft tumor growth in NOD-SCID mice. It caused 68% reduction in tumor volume after 18 days of treatment. Conclusions: Our results suggest that BP can cause G0/G1 phase arrest in prostate cancer cells and its cytotoxicity is mediated by ER stress induction. Thus, BP may serve as an anticancer agent by inducing ER stress in prostate cancer. © 2012 Chiu et al. Source


Chiu S.-C.,Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital | Huang S.-Y.,Mackay Memorial Hospital | Tsai Y.-C.,Tzu Chi University | Chen S.-P.,Tzu Chi Stem Cells Center | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Science | Year: 2012

Background: Episodic cessation of airflow during sleep in patients with sleep apnea syndrome results in intermittent hypoxia (IH). Our aim was to investigate the effects of IH on cerebellar granule cells and to identify the mechanism of IH-induced cell death. Methods. Cerebellar granule cells were freshly prepared from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. IH was created by culturing the cerebellar granule cells in the incubators with oscillating O 2concentration at 20% and 5% every 30 min for 1-4 days. The results of this study are based on image analysis using a confocal microscope and associated software. Cellular oxidative stress increased with increase in IH. In addition, the occurrence of cell death (apoptosis and necrosis) increased as the duration of IH increased, but decreased in the presence of an iron chelator (phenanthroline) or poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors [3-aminobenzamide (3-AB) and DPQ]. The fluorescence of caspase-3 remained the same regardless of the duration of IH, and Western blots did not detect activation of caspase-3. However, IH increased the ratio of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) translocation to the nucleus, while PARP inhibitors (3-AB) reduced this ratio. Results: According to our findings, IH increased oxidative stress and subsequently leading to cell death. This effect was at least partially mediated by PARP activation, resulting in ATP depletion, calpain activation leading to AIF translocation to the nucleus. Conclusions: We suggest that IH induces cell death in rat primary cerebellar granule cells by stimulating oxidative stress PARP-mediated calpain and AIF activation. © 2012Chiu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Chiu S.-C.,Taichung Tzu Chi Hospital | Huang S.-Y.,Mackay Memorial Hospital | Chang S.-F.,Taichung Tzu Chi Hospital | Chen S.-P.,Tzu Chi Stem Cells Center | And 14 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2014

Tanshinone IIA (Tan-IIA), one of the major lipophilic components isolated from the root of Salviae Miltiorrhizae, has been found to exhibit anticancer activity in various cancer cells. We have demonstrated that Tan-IIA induces apoptosis in several human cancer cells through caspase- and mitochondria-dependent pathways. Here we explored the anticancer effect of Tan-IIA in human bladder cancer cell lines. Our results showed that Tan-IIA caused bladder cancer cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Tan-IIA induced apoptosis through the mitochondria-dependent pathway in these bladder cancer cells. Tan-IIA also suppressed the migration of bladder cancer cells as revealed by the wound healing and transwell assays. Finally, combination therapy of Tan-IIA with a lower dose of cisplatin successfully killed bladder cancer cells, suggesting that Tan-IIA can serve as a potential anti-cancer agent in bladder cancer. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

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