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Shen X.-H.,Anhui University of Technology | Chen W.,Anhui University of Technology | Yan J.,Anhui University of Technology | Zhang L.,Tyre and Wheel Company | Zhang J.,Anhui University of Technology
Journal of Iron and Steel Research International | Year: 2015

To investigate the metal flow during the railway wheel forming process, experiments and finite element method (FEM) simulation were carried out. An axisymmetric modeling for the wheel rolling process was proposed to predict the metal flow in radial direction, by which the whole multi-stage forming process could be simulated in axisymmetric and integral way. The result shows that the axisymmetric simulation method was an effective method to explore the metal flow in radial direction and to analyze the relationships of tools motion during the wheel rolling. The detail information about metal flow in railway wheel forming process was obtained. The metal in the wheel web was from the area near the half radius of the original billet; the chill zone of the billet became an envelope of the rim and part of the web with a maximum thickness of about 6 mm below the tread. At the wheel rolling stage, the metal in the rim flowed towards the web; the metal near the surfaces of the conjunction region between the web and rim suffered severe shear deformation. © 2015 Central Iron and Steel Research Institute. Source


Shen X.-H.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Shen X.-H.,Anhui University of Technology | Yan J.,Anhui University of Technology | Zhang L.,Tyre and Wheel Company | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Iron and Steel Research International | Year: 2013

The knowledge of microstructure evolution of railway wheel during hot forming process is the prerequisite of improving mechanical properties of the final product. In order to investigate the austenite grain size evolution of railway wheel during multi-stage forging process, mathematical models of recrystallization and austenite grain growth were derived firstly by hot compression tests for railway wheel steel CL50D, which then were integrated with a thermal-mechanical finite element model by the developed subroutines. The information about kinetics of recrystallization and grain size distribution during the forging process was obtained by simulation. The predicted results were validated by experiments in an industrial scale, and the average error between the predicted grain sizes and the measured ones is about 5%. The result shows that, under the current railway wheel forging process, the grain size distribution after final forging is inhomogeneous extremely. There is a narrow coarse grain zone between the external part and center of the hub caused by Static recrystallization after final forging. With cooling of 60 s after final forging, the grain size is about 85 μm for the areas near the web surface and 175 μm for center areas of the hub and rim. © 2013 Central Iron and Steel Research Institute. Source


Shen X.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Shen X.,Anhui University of Technology | Yam J.,Anhui University of Technology | Gao L.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Steel Rolling | Year: 2010

Rolling is one of the important forming processes of railway wheels. The purposes of the rolling are to extend web length and increase the inner and outer diameters of the forged wheel preforms, as well as to precisely form the rim, flange and tread of wheel in rolling process. Wheel rolling is a kind of non-symmetrical and multi-passes ring rolling process. Furthenuore, wheel rolling has more deformation tools and the movements of tools are more complex than ordinary ring rolling. The wheel deformation in rolling is analyzed based on finite element method in this research. The process of wheel vertical-type rolling, together with modeling this process by using commercial package MSG. SuperForm, is described in detail in this study. Three dimensional thermo-mechanieal coupled analyses are conducted for rolling the railway wheel. The results show that: (1) during the rolling forming, the largest strains are distributed in the conjunction region ol web and rim; the strains in the outer part of rim is significantly larger than those in the inner part; strains in the central part of the rim are small. So it can be predicted that the dynamic recrystallizaiton in rim center is unlikely take place; (2) the metal in the web flows significantly in circumferential direction in the wheel rolling, especially in mid-and late rolling period; (3) The rolling forces of rollers are obtained and compared with the measured forces. The calculated forces are in good agreement with the measured lorces. The successlul three dimensional modeling of railway wheel rolling forming provides bases for optimization of wheel rolling process. Source


Shen X.,Anhui University of Technology | Yan J.,Anhui University of Technology | An T.,Tyre and Wheel Company | Xu Z.,Tyre and Wheel Company | Zhang J.,Anhui University of Technology
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2014

Rolling is one of the key stages of railway wheel hot forming process. In this work, a three-dimensional finite element analysis on wheel vertical rolling process based on some strategies proposed has been carried out by using FE code SuperForm. In modeling, a virtual mandrel is exploited in the hub hole to keep the wheel central instead of the guide rolls and centering rolls. Some features of the wheel forming are deeply investigated such as the rim diameter expanding, the rim lateral spreading, the metal flow in the circumferential direction, and the stresses distribution. The results show that (1) the rim radius expanding mainly occurs in the two affected zones before and after the back roll deformation zone; (2) the rim metal has flow trend in the circumferential direction during rolling, the metal of the intersection area, between the tread and the rim external side surface has the largest relative angular displacement; and (3) the tensile stresses of the web both in radial and circumferential directions during rolling result in the web thickness decreasing by about 3 mm for the investigated wheel. The simulations results reveal the forming mechanisms of wheel rolling, laying the basis for designing and optimizing railway wheel forming process. © 2014 Springer-Verlag London. Source

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