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Burlington, Canada

Tyne Engineering Corporation | Date: 1982-11-08


Ferrandon M.,Argonne National Laboratory | Daggupati V.,Tyne Engineering Inc. | Wang Z.,University of Ontario Institute of Technology | Naterer G.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Trevani L.,University of Ontario Institute of Technology
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry | Year: 2015

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory was used to investigate the progress of two of the reactions of the copper-chlorine cycle for production of hydrogen in situ by studying the evolution of the solid Cu species, using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The hydrolysis of CuCl2 (2 CuCl2 + H2O → Cu2OCl2 + 2 HCl) was studied under low and high steam-to-copper ratios from 423 to 725 K, and the decomposition of Cu2OCl2 (Cu2OCl2 → 2 CuCl + O2) in dry and humidified nitrogen up to 750 K. This study showed that the formation of Cu2OCl2 by hydrolysis of CuCl2 is more favorable under low steam-to-copper mole ratios and it reaches a maximum around 675 K. Over this limit, the formation of CuO and Cl2 as reaction byproducts starts to be noticeable. The same reaction byproducts were observed to form under all of the other experimental conditions and at temperatures as low as 635 K. The results from the decomposition studied by XANES are in very good agreement with calorimetric studies (TG/DSC) and they confirm that the formation of Cl2 takes place in the early stages of the decomposition of Cu2OCl2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the XANES spectrum of a Cu2OCl2 standard has been reported, since in previous studies Cu2OCl2 was always a reaction intermediate. © 2014 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

Thomson S.N.,Chalk River Laboratories | Carson R.,Chalk River Laboratories | Ratnayake A.,Tyne Engineering Inc. | Muirhead C.,Chalk River Laboratories | And 5 more authors.
Fusion Science and Technology | Year: 2015

AECL is currently exposing various commercial Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) materials to both gamma (Cobalt-60 source) and beta (tritiated water) radiation to study the effects of radiation on these materials. This paper summarizes the testing methods and results that have been collected to date. The PEMs being studied range in thickness and production method. These studies provide a baseline for AECL to determine if a correspondence between gamma and beta radiation effects exists and to produce improved radiation resistant membranes.

Boniface H.,Chalk River Laboratories | Suppiah S.,Chalk River Laboratories | Krishnaswamy K.,Chalk River Laboratories | Rodrigo L.,Chalk River Laboratories | And 2 more authors.
Fusion Science and Technology | Year: 2011

AECL has been actively involved in exploring advanced electrolysis technologies for its Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE) technology for water detritiation. A small-scale CECE system (miniCECE) has been built and operated at AECL to explore its operation as a closed-cycle system with a protonexchange membrane (PEM) type electrolysis cell. A similar mini-CECE system suitable for service with tritium concentrations up to 1000 Ci/kg(water) has been assembled, in collaboration with Tyne Engineering, for installation in a glovebox in AECL's Tritium Facility. These systems were developed as test-beds for membranes that had been selected for their expected tritium resistance. The systems allowed the measurement of membrane performance over long periods at very high tritium concentrations, as well as the ability to monitor any effects of membrane degradation products on the performance of exchange and recombiner catalysts. Preliminary work has been done with Nafion-112 membrane samples by exposing them to gamma and beta radiation to determine their suitability for use in tritiated CECE system. Doses of up to 1250 kGy of gamma or 200 kGy of beta were applied. Visual observations showed that gamma irradiation at doses below 400 kGy produced severe damage to the membrane. No significant physical damage was observed for samples exposed to 200 kGy from tritiated water. However this level of exposure to either gamma or beta radiation was sufficient to significantly decrease membrane performance in fuel cell tests.

Ozemoyah P.,Tyne Engineering Inc. | Robinson J.,Tyne Engineering Inc.
Canadian Nuclear Society - 33rd Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society and 36th CNS/CNA Student Conference 2012: Building on Our Past... Building for the Future | Year: 2012

Tritium removal facilities are only likely to be an issue when CANDU plants have matured and the increasing tritium levels in the water have become intolerable from a personnel health physics perspective. Even then some station owners claim that a Tritium removal facility is unnecessary, because improved health physics performance and practices is all that is required to protect against possible personnel exposure. To support this argument it is also true to say that the tritium accumulation does stabilize, and will reach a stage where the tritium content will no longer increase. However for station owners that support the view that they follow an ALARA principle in which only the lowest level achievable is acceptable, a tritium extraction plant when the plant is new or one built later when the plant is operating and in mid life, both have arguments to support the expense. For a CANDU reactor in mid-life, there are two options for siting the Tritium Removal Facility (TRF). 1. Stationary Option which will require permanent structures for each station. 2. Mobile Option which considers a complete TRF that can be moved from station to station In most existing CANDU-6 stations, no provisions have been made to construct and operate a TRF. This would make the Stationary Option costly because space would have to be provided and newly added infrastructure would have to be installed. With appropriate seismic qualification and following the necessary codes and standards, a Mobile TRF unit could be more cost effective, particularly if there were a possibility to share the unit with other stations in like position.

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