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Leger K.,University of Washington | Slone T.,University of TexasSouthwestern Medical CenterDallas | Leonard D.,TX | Cochran C.,Hematology OncologyChildrens Medical CenterDallas | And 3 more authors.
Pediatric Blood and Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: Subclinical cardiotoxicity occurs in childhood cancer survivors following moderate and high anthracycline doses. However, less is known about the subclinical changes in left ventricular (LV) structure that occur after very low anthracycline doses of ≤100mg/m2. This study was designed to assess LV function and key structural parameters following very low doses of anthracycline. Procedure: Conventional 2-dimensional echocardiograms with Doppler were obtained in 91 survivors of childhood cancer exposed to ≤100mg/m2,an average of 9.8 years from diagnosis. LV structural measurements were converted into Z-scores. The Z-score distributions were compared to those of the normal population. Diastolic and systolic function were quantified. Results: The cohort demonstrated a decreased posterior wall thickness (mean Z-score -1.01) and mildly decreased LV end diastolic (mean Z-score -0.85) and systolic (mean Z-score -0.84) dimensions compared to the normal population (P<0.001). Further, 28% of patients (n=25) had abnormal LV posterior wall thickness, ≥2 standard deviations below the mean (Z-score ≤-2). There were no patients with diastolic dysfunction or symptomatic systolic dysfunction, however four patients demonstrated abnormal SF≤28%. Conclusions: A significant proportion of patients exposed to very low doses of anthracycline demonstrate subclinical abnormalities in LV structure, despite the absence of radiation or other risk factors. While we cannot say whether these structural changes will result in clinically significant cardiac disease, the reported progressive nature of these findings raises concern that there may truly be no safe dose of anthracycline. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Gayed I.W.,Interventional Imaging | Wahba H.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Wan D.,Interventional Imaging | Joseph U.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Murthy R.,TX
Journal of Cancer Science and Therapy | Year: 2010

Objective: To evaluate the outcomes of patients receiving Y- 90 SIR-Spheres in patients with multiple liver metastases from different tumors. Methods: 29 consecutive patients with multiple liver metastases from colorectal (13), Islet cell tumors (9), carcinoid tumors (4) or non-small cell lung cancer (3) who were treated with Y-90 SIR-Spheres between March, 2003 and February, 2006 were included. Only patients who had follow-up radiological exams at our institution were included. Data regarding Y-90 SIR-Spheres dose, lobe of liver treated, and chemotherapy (CTx) administered were collected. Patients' outcomes were evaluated based on radiological evidence of change in size and number of liver metastases. Results: The study population included 8 females and 21 males at a mean age of 60y. The mean Y-90 SIR-Spheres dose administered was 39.8 mCi. Both lobes of the liver, the right lobe only or the left lobe only were treated in 26, 2, 1 patients, respectively. Sixteen patients received Y-90 SIR-Spheres after CTx failure, 5 patients as adjuvant therapy after completion of CTx, 7 patients as concurrent therapy and one patient refused repeat CTx. The mean interval between the last CTx and Y-90 SIR-Spheres was 108 days. Four patients (14%) demonstrated radiological improvement and 9 (31%) were stable for a mean interval of 2.8 mo. after Y-90 SIR-Spheres infusion. Sixteen patients (55%) demonstrated continued progress of liver metastases. Conclusion: Y-90 SIR-Spheres therapy is useful in reducing or stabilizing multiple liver metastases from a variety of tumors. © 2010 Gayed IW, et al.


Hanophy compares Supplemental Security Income and Social Security Disability Income as well as Ticket to Work to the public Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) program and methods of the Council of State Administrators of Vocational Rehabilitation (CSAVR). His evaluation suggests better outcomes for the beneficiaries, tax payers, local and federal budgets using the VR and CSAVR programs. © 2012-IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


Gangavarapu P.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Rajagopalan L.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Kolli D.,TX | Guerrero-Plata A.,TX | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology | Year: 2012

Chemokines exert their function by binding the GPCR class of receptors on leukocytes and cell surface GAGs in target tissues. Most chemokines reversibly exist as monomers and dimers, but very little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms by which the monomer-dimer equilibrium modulates in vivo function. For the chemokine CXCL8, we recently showed in a mouse lung model that monomers and dimers are active and that the monomer-dimer equilibrium of the WT plays a crucial role in regulating neutrophil recruitment. In this study, we show that monomers and dimers are also active in the mouse peritoneum but that the role of monomer-dimer equilibrium is distinctly different between these tissues and that mutations in GAG-binding residues render CXCL8 less active in the peritoneum but more active in the lung. We propose that tissue-specific differences in chemokine gradient formation, resulting from tissue-specific differences in GAG interactions, are responsible for the observed differences in neutrophil recruitment. Our observation of differential roles played by the CXCL8 monomer-dimer equilibrium and GAG interactions in different tissues is novel and reveals an additional level of complexity of how chemo-kine dimerization regulates in vivo recruitment. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.


Stern R.J.,TX | Johnson P.,1242 Tenth Street NW
Earth-Science Reviews | Year: 2010

The Arabian Plate originated ~25. Ma ago by rifting of NE Africa to form the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea. It is one of the smaller and younger of the Earth's lithospheric plates. The upper part of its crust consists of crystalline Precambrian basement, Phanerozoic sedimentary cover as much as 10. km thick, and Cenozoic flood basalt (harrat). The distribution of these rocks and variations in elevation across the Plate cause a pronounced geologic and topographic asymmetry, with extensive basement exposures (the Arabian Shield) and elevations of as much as 3000. m in the west, and a Phanerozoic succession (Arabian Platform) that thickens, and a surface that descends to sea level, eastward between the Shield and the northeastern margin of the Plate. This tilt in the Plate is partly the result of marginal uplift during rifting in the south and west, and loading during collision with, and subduction beneath, the Eurasian Plate in the northeast. But a variety of evidence suggests that the asymmetry also reflects a fundamental crustal and mantle heterogeneity in the Plate that dates from Neoproterozoic time when the crust formed.The bulk of the Plate's upper crystalline crust is Neoproterozoic in age (1000-540. Ma) reflecting, in the west, a 300-million year process of continental crustal growth between ~850 and 550. Ma represented by amalgamated juvenile magmatic arcs, post-amalgamation sedimentary and volcanic basins, and granitoid intrusions that make up as much as 50% of the Shield's surface. Locally, Archean and Paleoproterozoic rocks are structurally intercalated with the juvenile Neoproterozoic rocks in the southern and eastern parts of the Shield. The geologic dataset for the age, composition, and origin of the upper crust of the Plate in the east is smaller than the database for the Shield, and conclusions made about the crust in the east are correspondingly less definitive. In the absence of exposures, furthermore, nothing is known by direct observation about the composition of the crust north of the Shield. Nonetheless, available data indicate a geologic history for eastern Arabian crust different to that in the west. The Neoproterozic crust (~815-785. Ma) is somewhat older than in the bulk of the Arabian Shield, and igneous and metamorphic activity was largely finished by 750. Ma. Thereafter, the eastern part of the Plate became the site of virtually continuous sedimentation from 725. Ma on and into the Phanerozoic. This implies that a relatively strong lithosphere was in place beneath eastern Arabia by 700. Ma in contrast to a lithospheric instability that persisted to ~550. Ma in the west. Lithospheric differentiation is further indicated by the Phanerozoic depositional history with steady subsidence and accumulation of a sedimentary succession 5-14. km thick in the east and a consistent high-stand and thin to no Phanerozoic accumulation over the Shield. Geophysical data likewise indicate east-west lithospheric differentiation. Overall, the crustal thickness of the Plate (depth to the Moho) is ~40. km, but there is a tendency for the crust to thicken eastward by as much as 10% from 35-40. km beneath the Shield to 40-45. km beneath eastern Arabia. The crust also becomes structurally more complex with as many as 5 seismically recognized layers in the east compared to 3 layers in the west. A coincident increase in velocity is noted in the upper-crust layers. Complementary changes are evidenced in some models of the Arabian Plate continental upper mantle, indicating eastward thickening of the lithospheric mantle from ~80. km beneath the Shield to ~120. km beneath the Platform, which corresponds to an overall lithospheric thickening (crust and upper mantle) from ~120. km to ~160. km eastward. The locus of these changes coincides with a prominent magnetic anomaly (Central Arabian Magnetic Anomaly, CAMA) in the extreme eastern part of the Arabian Shield that extends north across the north-central part of the Arabian Plate. The CAMA also coincides with a major structural boundary separating a region of northerly and northwesterly basement trends in the west from a region of northerly and northeasterly trends in the northeastern part of the Plate, and with the transition from high-stand buoyant Shield to subsided Platform. Its coincidence with geophysically indicated changes in the lower crust and mantle structure suggests that a fundamental lithospheric boundary is present in the central part of the Arabian Plate. The ages and isotopic characteristics of xenoliths brought to the surface in Cenozoic basalt eruptions indicate that the lower crust and upper mantle are largely juvenile Neoproterozoic additions, meaning that the lower crust and upper mantle formed about the same time as the upper crust. This implies that the lithospheric boundary in the central part of the Arabian Plate dates from Neoproterozoic time. We conclude that lithospheric differentiation across the Arabian Plate is long lived and has controlled much of the Phanerozoic sedimentary history of the Plate. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Atiee G.,TX | Kvitko-White H.,TX | Spaulding K.,TX | Johnson M.,Texas A&M University
Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound | Year: 2014

Histoplasmosis is the second most common fungal infection reported in the cat. The disseminated form involving lung, liver, lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow is a frequent manifestation of the disease. Limited information is available in the literature regarding the ultrasonographic appearance of the spleen in cats with disseminated or splenic histoplasmosis. A retrospective review of splenic ultrasound images from 15 cats confirmed to have histoplasmosis by splenic aspirates was performed. Size, echotexture, echogenicity, margin appearance, presence of nodules, and the overall shape of the spleen were reported in each case. Splenomegaly was documented in all cases (15/15) and a hypoechoic appearance of the spleen was documented in 14/15 of cases. The spleen was diffusely and uniformly affected in 14/15 (six homogenous and eight with a subtle mottled appearance) and had discrete nodules in 1/15 cats. Histoplasmosis should be included in the differential list for an enlarged and hypoechoic spleen in cats with consistent clinical findings. Additionally, ultrasound guided splenic aspirate may be a useful method to obtain a cytology sample for diagnosis. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Radiology.


PubMed | Beijing University of Technology and TX
Type: | Journal: Accident; analysis and prevention | Year: 2015

The objective of this paper is to test the effectiveness and adaptability of speed reduction markings (SRMs) in downhill sections on urban roads with distinct roadway grades. Empirical data including vehicle speed and acceleration were collected in a driving simulator. Subjective questionnaires were conducted, and two indexes - the relative speed difference and standard deviation of acceleration - were developed to evaluate the effectiveness and adaptability of SRMs. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of driving simulator related to different road alignments and types of SRMs has been validated through a field test. Results of subjective questionnaires showed that the majority of subjects had no feelings of nervousness, but they were affected by SRMs while driving through downhill sections in all four scenarios (i.e., downhill sections with vertical grades of 3, 2, 1.5 and 1%). In terms of vehicle speed and acceleration, the results of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the contrast analysis (S-N-K method) indicated that SRMs were significantly effective when roadway grades of downgrade sections were 1.5, 2 and 3%, while transverse speed reduction markings (TSRMs) had significantly worse adaptability (P<0.05). Therefore, this research recommends that TSRMs could be placed in downhill sections with roadway grades of 1.5 or 2%; longitudinal speed reduction markings (LSRMs) could be placed in downhill sections with a roadway grade of 3%. Whether SRMs are placed in downhill sections with a roadway grade of 1% would depend on other factors such as financial issues and crash records, which are not considered in this paper.


Carranza R.G.,TX | Ospina J.,EAFIT University
WIT Transactions on Engineering Sciences | Year: 2014

Many studies are conducted for pyramidal spine fins relating to temperature profiles and fin efficiencies. However, it is found that a deeper look into the boundary conditions is required. The conditions at the base are simple enough, but the conditions at the tip are more complicated. Despite what condition is applied to the tip, the value at the tip actually has a specific value that is a function of the square root of the Biot number. This result is proven using basic principles from calculus, like the Limit and L’Hospital’s rule. © 2014 WIT Press.


Bills J.D.,TX | Berriman S.J.,TX | Noble D.L.,TX | Lavery L.A.,TX | Davis K.E.,TX
International Wound Journal | Year: 2015

As the burden of diabetes continues to grow and treatment standards require careful tracking of wound progress, clinicians increasingly need to rely on technological improvements in wound measurement technologies to track the progress of their treatments. This study aims to determine the accuracy of a new three-dimensional wound measurement (3DWM) device against laser-assisted wound measurement (LAWM) devices and traditional methods of wound measurement. Using several wound models, we demonstrate that the 3DWM device measures wound area, depth and volume similarly to the other methods tested. This is especially apparent when changes in wound measurements were compared between the two devices. Differences between the two technologies were apparent when analysing wound measurement time and measurement repeatability. There was a significantly lower incidence of error in measurements between the 3DWM device and the LAWM device. Finally, the measurement time was significantly faster with the 3DWM device compared to the LAWM device. Together, these data demonstrate that the 3DWM device provides an accurate and reproducible method for measuring changes in wound healing similar to other available technologies. Further, the use of the 3DWM device provides a faster and more consistent measurement, which is critical for clinical application and use. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


PubMed | TX
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) | Year: 2015

Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a cancer predisposition syndrome and the factors defective in FA are involved in DNA replication, DNA damage repair and tumor suppression. Here, we show that FANCD2 is critical for genome stability maintenance in response to high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. We found that FANCD2 is monoubiquitinated and recruited to the sites of clustered DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) specifically in S/G2 cells after high-LET radiation. Further, FANCD2 facilitated the repair of clustered DSBs in S/G2 cells and proper progression of S-phase. Furthermore, lack of FANCD2 led to a reduced rate of replication fork progression and elevated levels of both replication fork stalling and new origin firing in response to high-LET radiation. Mechanistically, FANCD2 is required for correct recruitment of RPA2 and Rad51 to the sites of clustered DSBs and that is critical for proper processing of clustered DSBs. Significantly, FANCD2-decifient cells exhibited defective chromosome segregation, elevated levels of chromosomal aberrations, and anchorage-independent growth in response to high-LET radiation. These findings establish FANCD2 as a key factor in genome stability maintenance in response to high-LET radiation and as a promising target to improve cancer therapy.

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