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Cambridge, United Kingdom

Guided wave inspection is a fast growing technology for screening pipelines for corrosion. The technique is capable of inspecting tens of metres from a single test location and examining otherwise inaccessible regions of pipeline such as cased road crossings. However, enhancements to the technique are needed if inspections are to be transformed from a screening procedure to a more quantitative assessment of the condition of the pipeline. A rapid calculation procedure to determine the dispersion curves for guided wave modes is important if enhancements are to be automatically incorporated into the technique. Commercial code for dispersion curve calculation is available but it is proprietary and typically uses an iterative procedure to calculate curves which can be unreliable and slow. Other methods for calculating dispersion curves have been published including semi-analytical finite element solutions but these require extensive programming. In this paper, a closed form solution based on known trigonometric behaviour in the circumferential and axial directions and a standard polynomial solution through the thickness is presented. The method allows rapid computation of dispersion curves for typical guided wave inspection scenarios with minimal programming required. In addition, a tracing algorithm is also presented which allows the computed points to be joined to form curves and therefore fully identify the dispersive behaviour of each wave mode. The new method has been successfully verified against the well-established software, Disperse®, for a range of pipe sizes, materials and frequencies typical to guided wave inspection. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Pisarski H.,Twi Ltd.
Welding in the World | Year: 2013

Currently, there are a number of fracture mechanics-based procedures for assessing the acceptability of flaws in pipeline girth welds. These are designed to relax workmanship flaw acceptance criteria, which are often based on flaw length alone, and to provide a means of deciding acceptability of flaws found by ultrasonic testing where information on height, position through the pipe wall thickness, as well as length are provided. The potential benefits of these procedures are a reduction in costs by minimising the need for repair and delay imposed. This is achieved without compromising the integrity of the weld. The established procedures are designed for applied stresses below the yield strength of the material. Methods based on BS7910 and API 1104 are introduced. Strain-based procedures, where the applied strain exceeds the yield strain, are described and compared. These are the DNV RP F108 procedure, which is primarily concerned with pipeline installation, and the more recently developed strain capacity methods developed by ExxonMobil and PRCI CRES for pipelines subjected to internal pressure combined with axial plastic loading. Finally, some comments on how the results of inspection can be used to help develop assessment methods and inform Engineering Critical Assessment strategies. © 2013 TWI Ltd 2013 - Published by the kind authorization of TWI. Source

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CS2-RIA | Phase: JTI-CS2-2014-CFP01-AIR-02-06 | Award Amount: 694.09K | Year: 2016

Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) involves moderate pressure resin injection of a dry preform placed in sealed rigid tooling. Fast and effective processing requires correct placement of the reinforcement to avoid defects and potential race tracking, appropriate selection of inlet and outlet locations, and careful control of flow speeds to minimise porosity and dry regions; furthermore, suitable cure conditions are needed to avoid under-cure, or exothermic effects that generate excessive residual stresses and final part distortions. Today, finite element simulation is regularly used to design injection processes and cure. However, purely predictive simulation suffers from issues related to uncertainty and variability in material state and numerous process variables. Online monitoring of resin flow in tests and stochastic simulations to understand effects of material and model variability on flow processes could be two methods to enhance fidelity of numerical simulation models. The proposed project integrates three approaches to provide a unified integrated simulation tool combining predictive modelling, variability propagation and process monitoring. Input utilises material data and models to be developed with physical resin sensor results, from which process outcomes, conditional on material and process variables, are determined. The proposed work develops this concept for the three stages of RTM processing; namely, preforming, injection and cure. The overall concept will be implemented on a pilot RTM line and then transferred to the Topic Managers manufacturing site, where it will be used for trials. The project combines two universities with specialist knowledge in fabric mechanical and permeability modelling, resin test and modelling and numerical simulation of RTM processes and final part distortion. One industrial partner collaborates on industrial RTM and flow monitoring.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: FTIPilot-1-2015 | Award Amount: 2.79M | Year: 2016

The EU Agency for Safety & Health is currently amending wind turbine standards (such as EN 50308) to ensure safer O&M tasks and increase the Probability Of Detection (POD) for wind turbine defects. ISO have also identified such issues, and in fact initiated the development of QA standards specifically tailored for the Condition Monitoring (CM) of wind turbines. Current CM systems are intrusive, and hence revoke the initial OEM warranty of drive-train components. The combination of industrial and legislative factors is the key driver behind the production of CMDrive: a bespoke and non-intrusive acoustic-analysis CM system, having a POD for drive-train defects of 90-98% within the range of operating powers. The requested grant of 2.5m will be required to validate and enhance the system, and initiate the commercialisation process. Growth in the wind services sector, as related to O&M and CM, is also compelling, as studies by Deloitte have shown that the corresponding market is estimated to increase from 5.2b to 10.8b by 2020, with a CAGR of 10%. The first generation of CMDrive shall be produced for wind turbines of 2.5MW or less; a next generation product, to handle larger turbines, has already been envisioned. The commercialisation strategy involves the segmentation of the wind turbine market into 3 initial customer tiers, is targeting WFOs and Independent Service Providers of CM within such tiers, and will position the product through a number of Unique Selling Points, which will be elaborated further in this proposal. The locations of the 5 partners, in addition to the global outreach of TWI and INESCO, are critical factors for launching the product by 2019. It is expected that CMDrives associated revenue streams (sales, services, licensing) will yield an estimated ROI of 1100%, and corresponding cumulative profits of 26m, over the 5 year forecast (20192023). INESCO will take lead of the sales, with the other partners benefiting by means of profit shares.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NMP-19-2015 | Award Amount: 7.99M | Year: 2016

In the wind power generation, aerospace and other industry sectors there is an emerging need to operate in the low temperature and highly erosive environments of extreme weather conditions. Such conditions mean current materials either have a very short operational lifetime or demand such significant maintenance as to render many applications either very expensive to operate or in some cases non-viable. EIROS will develop self-renewing, erosion resistant and anti-icing materials for composite aerofoils and composite structures that can be adapted by different industrial applications: wind turbine blades and aerospace wing leading edges, cryogenic tanks and automotive facia. The addition of novel multi-functional additives to the bulk resin of fibre reinforced composites will allow the achievement of these advanced functionalities. Multi-scale numerical modelling methods will be adopted to enable a materials by design approach to the development of materials with novel structural hierarchies. These are capable of operating in severe operating environments. The technologies developed in this project will provide the partners with a significant competitive advantage. The modification of thermosets resins for use in fibre composite resins represents both a chemically appropriate and highly flexible route to the development of related materials with different applications. It also builds onto existing supply chains which are represented within the partnership and provides for European materials and technological leadership and which can assess and demonstrate scalability. The partnership provides for an industry led project with four specific end users providing both market pull and commercial drive to further progress the materials technology beyond the lifetime of the project.

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