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Pseudocyclic (P) integration was very important in the evolution of modular organisms. Its wide distribution was possible because of their morphogenesis, ontogeny, and systemic specifics. P-transformations are often related to changes around the boundaries of subsystems and structures, with a relatively low integrity of modular biosystems. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Russian physicians often afraid to use statins in patients with high cardiovascular risk and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or other hepatobiliary diseases, especially in cases when elevated levels of serum transaminases are detected. To expand the use of statins in these patients, a scheme of statins and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) co-administration was developed in 2014 and subsequently in 2016 it was included into the Russian clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of NAFLD. In addition to the scheme, the guidelines contain the results of clinical trials that demonstrated hepatoprotective, lipid-lowering and anti-atherogenic effects of UDCA in patients with NAFLD. This paper presents a critical review of these trials, as well as it discusses the points of the scheme, which may contribute to unduly delayed prescribing and insufficiently intensive use of statins in patients with high risk of cardiovascular complications and associated NAFLD.

Alekseev V.G.,Tver State University
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal | Year: 2012

A review of the literature from 1957 to 2009 on studies of the interaction of penicillin and cephalosporin antibiotics with metal cations and studies of the structure and properties of the resulting complexes is presented. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Notov A.A.,Tver State University
Invertebrate Zoology | Year: 2017

The Pseudocyclic (P) integration in modular organisms is determined by specifics in their morphogenesis, ontogeny and systemic features. P-transformations played an important role in the structural evolution of vascular plants. Modular animals are still insufficiently understood in this regard. The pseudocyclic similarities (PS) are found in different taxonomic groups of Coelenterata, Bryozoa, Urochordata. The probability of discovering of other PS increases owing to the hierarchical differentiation of the colony body and network character of structural evolution in different taxa of modular invertebrates. Further frontal analysis of the structural diversity of colonial invertebrates is important from the position of P concept. The results obtained in the analysis of vascular plants are useful in detail examination of the P-integration of modular invertebrates. © INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY, 2017.

Size dependences of the nanocrystal sublimation and the evaporation heats of the corresponding nanodrops are investigated using the isothermal molecular dynamics and the tight-binding potential (on examples of Ni and Au nanoparticles). Results of computer simulation demonstrating linear dependences of the evaporation and sublimation heats on the particle reciprocal radius are compared with results of thermodynamic calculations as well as with experimental data for bulk phases of the same metals. It has been found that the size dependences of the evaporation and sublimation heats are directly related with the behavior of the size dependence of the melting heat that in its turn correlates with structural transformations in nanoparticles induced by the change of their size. The conclusion is drawn that there is some characteristic nanoparticle size (of the order of 1 nm) at which its crystal and liquid states become indistinguishable. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Shavrin V.N.,Tver State University
Regional Research of Russia | Year: 2015

The paper discusses subcenters - special places in the settlement systems of municipal districts. In some ways they can be compared with "key settlements" of Great Britain. Subcenters are considered an alternative to municipal district centers. Formal criteria are offered for determining subcenters for NonChernozem Zone. Seventy-seven subcenters are determined in Tver oblast. All municipal districts of the oblast are analyzed for the presence of the mentioned class of settlements. The differences in the network density of centers (municipal and subcenters) in the districts of the oblast are shown. The dependence of the network density of centers (municipal and subcenters) in municipal districts on their economical and geographical position is demonstrated. The genetic types of subcenters in Tver oblast are examined. Among them there are former centers of municipal districts, old trade centers, settlements with favorable transport and geographical location, and rural settlements that have transitioned into small towns or urban-type settlements. Possible decisions to strengthen the role of subcenters in municipal districts are suggested. © 2015 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Nikitin S.A.,Moscow State University | Skokov K.P.,Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research | Koshkid'Ko Yu.S.,Tver State University | Pastushenkov Yu.G.,Tver State University | Ivanova T.I.,Moscow State University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

We have investigated the anisotropy of the magnetocaloric effect in a NdCo5 single crystal in a wide range of temperatures, including the spin-reorientation temperature region. In the field μ0H=1.3T in the spin-reorientation region 250-310A K, we discovered a giant rotating magnetocaloric effect of ∼1.6K, caused by rotation of the magnetization vector. The calculations of the anisotropy magnetocaloric effect for the field μ0H=1.3T have been carried out. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Zinoviev A.V.,Tver State University
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology | Year: 2011

Partial reconstruction of hindlimb myology and syndesmology of Hesperornis regalis, based on fossil and extant comparative anatomical material, is provided. Possessing a combination of morphological features characteristic of modern loons and grebes, H. regalis was somewhat closer to loons in overall hindlimb anatomy. The acetabular foramen indicates that the femoral head of Hesperornis had a more restricted excursion in the acetabulum comparedwith modernAves. The development of femoral retractors m. iliofemoralis and m. caudofemoralis exceeded that of modern foot-propelled diving birds, showing greater protractive forces applied to the femur during the propulsive stroke. The origin of intermediate and lateral portions of m. gastrocnemius reached its maximum in Hesperornis, extending proximally beyond the greater trochanter and migrating onto the cranial surface of the femur. Ligaments of the knee joint, which show typical avian morphology, allowed a high degree of inward-outward rotation of the tibiotarsus,whichwas held close to the body andwas probably enclosed in the thickly feathered skin of the body wall. Flexion-extension movements in the knee joint were highly reduced by the action of well-developed mm. flexores cruris, m. iliofibularis, the postacetabular portion of m. iliotibialis lateralis and m. femorotibialis medialis. The intertarsal joint of Hesperornis possessed a high degree of rotational freedom. In this way it resembled that of loons, showing a loon-like manner of tarsometatarsal movements. This was, however, combined with grebe-like movements of the toes, which undoubtedly had asymmetrical lobes. Hesperornis regalis shows its own independent way of mastering underwater locomotion, which led to the appearance of what became the most specialized avian foot-propelled diver ever known. © 2011 The Natural History Museum.

Samsonov V.M.,Tver State University
Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2011

After a short discussion of the main experimental results on the macroscopic and nanosized droplet spreading, a critical review is presented for the publications on the computer simulation of the droplet spreading. As follows from the review, history of investigations in this field of surface science began in 1990s. Special emphasis is placed on articles published during the last 5 years, particularly, in 2010.Some recent advances. It seems that there have seen no significant advances in the course of 2010 into computer simulation of the droplet spreading. At the same time, an attempt to compare computer simulation results with theoretical results for the macroscopic spreading is, no doubt, of interest. It is also of interest that in 2010 the droplet spreading in a liquid medium was simulated, and the wetted area followed the diffusive law. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Zinoviev A.V.,Tver State University
International Journal of Osteoarchaeology | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity of dogs in medieval Novgorod. Based on the unique osteological collection of canine bones from layers of 10th to 14th centuries AD, research showed that the 'classical' medium-sized mesocephalic animals were the most widespread in the city in the discussed times. Well suitable for the alarm guarding, they were rarely used for food or skins. Smaller and larger specimens are rare and most likely represent the luxury breeds of upper classes or prosperous citizens. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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