Kyzyl, Russia
Kyzyl, Russia

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Taynik A.V.,Siberian Federal University | Barinov V.V.,Siberian Federal University | Oidupaa O.C.,Tuva State University | Myglan V.S.,Siberian Federal University | And 2 more authors.
Dendrochronologia | Year: 2015

Tree-ring research in the Altai-Sayan Mountains so far only considered a limited number of well-replicated site chronologies. The dendroecological and palaeoclimatological potential and limitations of large parts of south-central Russia therefore remain rather unexplored. Here, we present a newly updated network of 13 larch (Larix sibirica Ldb.) tree-ring width (TRW) chronologies from mid to higher elevations along a nearly 1000. km west-to-east transect across the greater Altai-Sayan region. All data were sampled between 2009 and 2014. The corresponding site chronologies cover periods from 440 to 860 years. The highest TRW agreement is found between chronologies ≥2200. m asl, whereas the material from lower elevations reveals overall less synchronized interannual to longer-term growth variability. While fluctuations in average June-July temperature predominantly contribute to the growth at higher elevations, arid air masses from Mongolia mainly affect TRW formation at lower elevations. Our results are indicative for the dendroclimatological potential of the Altai-Sayan Mountains, where both, variation in summer temperature and hydroclimate can be robustly reconstructed back in time. These findings are valid for a huge region in central Asia where reliable meteorological observations are spatially scarce and temporally restricted to the second half of the 20th century. The development of new high-resolution climate reconstruction over several centuries to millennia will further appear beneficial for timely endeavors at the interface of archaeology, climatology and history. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH.


Chysyma R.B.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations | Fedorov Yu.N.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations | Makarova E.Yu.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations | Kuular G.D.,Tuva State University
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2015

Humoral and cellular factors of natural resistance of animals are represented by diverse proteins, peptides, lysosomal enzymes, and immunocompetent cells contained in blood. The natural resistance factors possessing antimicrobial properties additionally activate the other humoral and cellular immunity mechanisms. The natural resistance system formed during the process of evolution and microevolution of domesticated animals determines their fitness to biotic and abiotic stresses caused by the action of pathogens, unfavorable natural-climatic conditions that is most importantly for animals under all-year-round pasture keeping conditions. The landscapes of the Republic of Tuva are mountainous; this is a territory with sharply continental climate, frosts of down to -50 °C in winters, cool summer in highlands and hot in depressions. Nevertheless, the region is thought favorable for rearing native breeds of horses (Equus ferus caballus), sheep (Ovis aries), goats (Capra aegagrus hircus), and highland yaks (Poephagus grunniens), which are well fit to such complex conditions. Of the species listed, only the yaks were earlier studied with regard to evaluating the state of their cellular and humoral immunity. A comparative study on natural resistance parameters in native Tuvinian horses, highland yaks, Tuvinian short-fat-tailed sheep and goats of Tuvinian population was performed by us for the first time. The evaluation of humoral and cellular factors of natural resistance revealed specific distinctions. Thus, the native Tuvinian horses are superior to goats of Tuvinian population and Tuvinian short-fat-tailed sheep in phagocytosis activity as much as 1.38 and 1.43 times, respectively (P < 0.001). The maximum phagocytai index was observed in horses of native breeds (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01). Highland yaks showed parameters of phagocytosis activity and phagocytai index higher than those in goats and sheep (P < 0.001). The determination of the content of lysosomal-cationic proteins showed interspecific distinctions, which were most expressed in native Tuvinian horses and highland yaks. Concentration of lysosomal-cationic proteins in blood serum of horses and yaks was characterized by the maximum values, while this index in goats and sheep was lower (P < 0.001). Positive correlation (r = 0.86-0.98) between phagocytosis activity, phagocytai index and the level of lysosomal-cationic proteins was found to be in the all animals studied. It should be noted that the data from available literary sources on such a relationship in agricultural animals are extremely limited. We also revealed interspecific diversity in the content of immunoglobulins of primary isotypes (IgG, IgM, IgA), the high values of which were observed in goats and sheep.


Kharzinova V.R.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations | Gladyr E.A.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations | Fedorov V.I.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations | Romanenko T.M.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations | And 4 more authors.
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2015

Reindeer (Rangifer tamndus), the only member of the genus Rangifer, is one of the most interesting object to investigate genetic diversity. One of the technique of studying the genetic structure of populations and parentage identification is to create panels of STR (short tandem repeats) markers. The aim of the current study was the development of multiplex panel of STR markers and assessment of its application to assign the parents and to study biodiversity of Russian reindeer populations. As a biological material for research we used tissue samples (part of ear's lobes) of reindeer of Even (EVN, n = 44), Evenk (EVK, n = 44), Nenets (n = 45) breeds and Tyva population (TUV, n = 35). DNA extraction was performed using Nexttec columns (Germany) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Polymorphism of nine STR markers (NVHRT76, RT9, NVHRT24, RT30, RT1, RT6, RT27, NVHRT21 and RT7) was determined by own procedures using ABI 3130×1 DNA analyzer («Applied Biosystems», USA). Statistical analysis was performed in MS Excel 2007 with the plugin GenAIEx v. 6.5, software MSA 4.05, PHYLIP, v. 3.5c, Treev32 and Structure, v. 2.3.4. The studied populations of reindeer were characterized by relatively high levels of genetic diversity. The average number of alleles per locus was 6.11±0.56 in TUV, 6.67±0.50 in NEN, 8.00±0.76 in EVN and 8.89±0.65 in EVK. The smallest effective number of alleles per locus was detected in TUV (3.37±0.47), the maximal value was in EVK (4.89±0.46 alleles per locus), and EVN and NEN occupied an intermediate position (4.42±0.53 and 3.90±0.38, respectively). The number of alleles in single loci ranged from four in NVHRT21 and NVHRT24 for TUV to twelve in RT7 for EVK and RT1 for EVN. The probability of matching genotypes (PI) for the nine loci ranged from 1.84×10-9 in NEN to 5.9×10-11 in EVK, showing the high power of the proposed marker panel for parentage identification. The calculation of the mean values of similarity coefficient Q in the ith cluster with the most probable number of clusters such as k = 3 and k = 4 (Qi/k) revealed high heterogeneity of genetic structure of studied populations. The highest degree of genetic differentiation was shown for TUV (Q2/3 = 0.899±0.034, Q3/4 = 0.883±0.035) and for NEN (Q3/3 = 0.885±0.031, Q4/4 = 0.813±0.038). The EVN and EVK population were close to each other, and a clear clustering between them was not observed. An estimation of Rst (AMOVA) showed that 11.4 % of the total molecular variability was caused by differences between populations, and 88.6 % was due to individual differences between animals (p < 0.01). Evaluation of degree of genetic differentiation of studied populations, using as criteria the values of Nei' genetic distances and pairwise comparisons of Fst showed similar trends. TUV population was the most distinct comparing to other populations (DNei = 0,283-0,502, Fst = 0,299-0,452), while it was the most differ from NEN and the closest to EVN. The minimal genetic differences were observed between EVN and EVK (DNei = 0,068, Fst = 0,032). The results show high functional power of the developed STR panel to identify the parentage and to study biodiversity in Russian reindeer populations.


Saveljev A.P.,Zhitkov Russian Research Institute Of Game Management And For Farming | Shar S.,National University of Mongolia | Scopin A.E.,Zhitkov Russian Research Institute Of Game Management And For Farming | Otgonbaatar M.,Hovd State University | And 3 more authors.
Russian Journal of Biological Invasions | Year: 2015

The modern status and population trends of three alien semiaquatic mammals in a transboundary (Mongolia/Russia) ecosystem of the Uvs Nuur Hollow were studied. The muskrat, American mink, and Eurasian beaver (Sino-Mongolian subspecies) have almost equivalent size of “life arenas,” but different population trends, different success in naturalization, and different impact on native ecosystems. It is concluded that differences of naturalization in these three mammals are defined not by postintroduction history or the effect of some abiotic factors, but by the diversity and abundance of trophic niches in the Uvs Nuur Basin. It is stated that, in the conditions of a sharply continental climate and a rigid hydroregime, the adaptation to a new ecosystem is easier for herbivorous mammals having richer and stabler food resources than for carnivorous animals. The behavioral adaptive mechanisms promoting naturalization are described. The evolutionary stability of the building instinct is very important for beaver colonization of new habitats. The utilitarian value of alien species for the human population of the given territory is estimated. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Albert E.V.,Moscow State University | Kavai-Ool U.N.,Tuva State University | Ezhova T.A.,Moscow State University
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology | Year: 2014

A constancy of stem cell pool in shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana is provided by a genetic regulation system with negative feedback loop based on the interaction of the gene WUS, which maintains indeterminate state of cells, with CLV genes, which restrict the level of WUS expression and stem cell pool size. clv mutations lead to an increase in the pool of stem cells in the apical and floral meristems and wus mutation leads to the opposite effect. Mutation na (nana), like wus mutation, causes premature termination of shoot apical meristem function, although it does not affect the activity of the flower meristem. To elucidate the role of NA in the control of shoot apical meristem functioning, the interaction of NA with CLV genes were investigated. Additive phenotype of double mutants na clv1, na clv2-1, and na clv3-2 indicates that the NA gene makes an independent contribution to the functioning of the shoot apical meristem. It is assumed that the NA gene controls apical meristem cell proliferation during the transition to the reproductive phase of plant development, acting much later and independently of the genes WUS-CLV. © 2014, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Soltabaeva A.D.,Moscow State University | Kavai-ool U.N.,Tuva State University | Kupriyanova E.V.,Moscow State University | Ezhova T.A.,Moscow State University
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology | Year: 2013

The role of the gene ER2 in plant development has been studied by the analysis of the erecta2 (er2) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. It was shown that the mutation er2 provides pleiotropic effect on the development of all aboveground organs. It induces shortening and thickening of the stem, leaves and all flower organs, though it does not change the sensitivity to gibberellin. Changes in the morphology of the shoot organs are due to the changes in cell polarity. The cells get wider and shorter compared to the wild type. It was found that the gene ER2 is located in the lower arm of the chromosome 1. It complementarily interacts with the gene ER that plays an important role in the control of intercellular interactions. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Albert E.V.,Moscow State University | Kavai-ool U.N.,Tuva State University | Ezhova T.A.,Moscow State University
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology | Year: 2015

Identification of new genes involved in the control of flower initiation and development is an important problem of the plant developmental genetics. The central approach to it’s solution is the study of mutants with changes in these characters. The effect of pleiotropic mutation fasciata5 on the transition to the reproductive stage and flower development was studied. By analyzing double mutants, we identified interactions of FASCIATA5 gene with LEAFY, APETALA1, and APETALA2, which control the floral meristem identity. The results indicate an important role of gene FASCIATA5 in upregulation of these genes. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Albert E.V.,Moscow State University | Kavai-ool U.N.,Tuva State University | Ezhova T.A.,Moscow State University
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology | Year: 2015

The paper describes a new mutation that causes the development of multiple meristematic foci as part of shoot apical meristem, which can give rise to new stem axes or cause stem fasciation. The wus-1 mutation represses development of additional apical meristem in fas5 mutant, indicating the sequential action of the genes in the formation of the shoot apical meristem and FAS5 gene participation in spatial restriction of the WUS gene expression. Gene FAS5 performs this function independently of other negative regulators of WUS gene, namely genes CLV, as demonstrated by additive phenotype of double mutants fas5 clv2-1 and fas5clv3-2. Besides the effect on the development of the shoot apical meristem, fas5 mutation causes a change in the shape and number of leaves, accelerates the plant transition to the reproductive stage and leads to the development of cell neoplasms on the stem (buds, stigmatic tissues, and ovule-like structures). The mutation also causes changes in apical meristems and leaf cell morphology indicating the activation in cells of DNA endoreduplication. Pleiotropic effect of the fas5 mutation on different stages of ontogeny and different organs suggests that the FAS5 gene plays a complex regulatory role at all stages of A. thaliana shoot development and affects many direct or indirect target genes. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Buduk-Ool L.K.,Tuva State University | Khovalyg A.M.,Tuva State University | Saryg S.K.,Tuva State University
Human Ecology | Year: 2016

The article presents results of a study of psychological characteristics of Tuvan first-year students living in conditions of climatic and geographic social tensions of the Republic of Tuva. The peculiarity of the Republic of Tuva is not only harsh climate, national way of life and lifestyle, but also low socio-economic standards of living. The study was conducted in the framework of the monitoring in the University Health Centre with the computer program «Methodology for integrated assessment of physical and mental health of students in higher and secondary professional educational institutions» by R. I. Aisman. The Tuvan students were characterized by optimal parameters of anxiety, stress resistance, aggression and hostility, neurotization and psychopathology corresponding to the middle-age norms. They had quite a high level of motivation to succeed. Among the parameters of social and psychological adaptation, orientation to dysaptation prevailed. The nervous system’s neurodynamic indicators indicated the medium-weak type of the nervous systems of Tuvinians. There have been identified gender characteristics of the girls, they had higher anxiety, hostility and motivation to succeed. The young men were more emotionally stable, calm, optimistic, because there were no persons with the high neurotization level among them. The girls were characterized by lower psychological adaptation, however, they had a higher level of physiological adaptation in comparison with the young men. © Northern State Medical University, Arkhangelsk.


Yanchat N.N.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Tas-ool L.Kh.,Tuva State University | Kalush Yu.A.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Solid Fuel Chemistry | Year: 2010

An electronic database of analytical and scientific data was developed for coal deposits of the Tuva Republic, including parameters pertaining to petrologic, geochemical, and processing properties of coals. The database is structured into six topical sections (handbook, geography, geology, quality, technology, and geo-economic evaluation) and adapted to augmentation and systemic processing of users' queries. © Allerton Press, Inc., 2010.

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