Nürnberg, Germany
Nürnberg, Germany

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Protz S.,TUV Rheinland LGA Products GmbH | Jungnickel F.,TUV Rheinland LGA Products GmbH | Galinkina J.,TUV Rheinland LGA Products GmbH | Maciej B.,TUV Rheinland LGA Products GmbH | And 2 more authors.
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft | Year: 2010

The following results are based on standardized emission test chamber examinations and subsequent GC/MS analytical measurement of substance specific and total VOC contents of cubic and equally sized Polyurethane (PUR) test samples. They reveal that different zones within a selected processed PUR foam block exist which vary in analyzed VOC emission values. Moreover, analytical test results show that low-emitting block areas are located in the centre of the block.


Chaintreau A.,Firmenich | Cicchetti E.,Firmenich | David N.,135 Avenue Charles de Gaulle | Earls A.,LGC Ltd. | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2011

Previous publications investigated different data treatment strategies for quantification of volatile suspected allergens by GC/MS. This publication presents the validation results obtained on "ready to inject" samples under reproducibility conditions following inter-laboratory ring-testing. The approach is based on the monitoring of three selected ions per analyte using two different GC capillary columns. To aid the analysts a decisional tree is used for guidance during the interpretation of the analytical results. The method is evaluated using a fragrance oil concentrate spiked with all suspected allergens to mimic the difficulty of a real sample extract or perfume oil. At the concentrations of 10 and 100. mg/kg, imposed by Directive 76/768/EEC for labeling of leave-on and rinse-off cosmetics, the mean bias is +14% and -4%, respectively. The method is linear for all analytes, and the prediction intervals for each analyte have been determined. To speed up the analyst's task, an automated data treatment is also proposed. The method mean bias is slightly shifted towards negative values, but the method prediction intervals are close to that resulting from the decisional tree. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Maciej B.,TUV Rheinland LGA Products GmbH | Maciej B.,Bundesinstitut For Risikobewertung Bfr | Maciej B.,LGA Products GmbH | Hagen U.,TUV Rheinland LGA Products GmbH | Schelle C.,TUV Rheinland LGA Products GmbH
Deutsche Lebensmittel-Rundschau | Year: 2011

Children's exposure with respect to formaldehyde emissions from wooden toys may be associated with various health risks due to the chemical's adverse toxicological metabolic profile in humans. In compliance with the current European chemical legislation formaldehyde is classified as skin sensitizer and with limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect. Consequently, the assessment of the exposure extent concerning users of formaldehyde emitting toy articles can exclusively be based on reliable and scientifically sound testing methods with specific regard to wood based materials applied in the manufacturing process. In the scope of formaldehyde emission evaluations due to wooden toys both the authoritative test chamber method in accordance with the German Chemical Prohibition Decree and the bottle method as specified within the European toy safety standard are available. The presented scientific research work outlines which physical parameters may influence formaldehyde emission test results generated by the bottle method and if a correlation can be derived from test data on the basis of both examination methods. Moreover, an alternative testing approach following to the referenced test chamber method is presented which will contribute to a reduction of methodically related disadvantages of the standard conformable chamber procedure.


For solvent formulated contact glues water-based dispersion adhesives represent a substitution option in various application areas. Latter ones are characterized with comparable adhesion and cohesion qualities. Especially with focus on agglutination of polymeric cellular plastics in mattresses, dispersion adhesives reveal an advantageous VOC emission profile due to distinctly reduced solvent concentrations. Respecting the technical state of the art condition, adhesives based upon poly-2-chloro-1,3-butadiene dispersions however show residual contents of monomeric 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene that is classified as potentially carcinogenic and can be detected as very volatile organic compound (WOC) in emission test chamber examinations. This article specifies the impact of various polyurethane foam matrices of different layer thicknesses on quantifiable test chamber concentrations of monomeric and dimeric 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene. The examinations in the test series were performed applying dispersions accumulated with monomeric 2-chloro-1f3-butadiene and an analytically quantified concentration of residual monomer content. The results were used to define permissible guide value concentrations for carcinogenic compounds released from mattresses in test chamber examinations.


Frank G.,TUV Rheinland LGA Products GmbH | Schelle C.,TUV Rheinland LGA Products GmbH
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft | Year: 2014

Electrical household appliances assigned to five different product groups were investigated in the scope of standardized emission test chamber measurements respecting well-defined test algorithms adapted to conditions under usage. The emission profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and toxicological relevant substances have been quantified. Based on test chamber concentrations device specific emission rates were used for modeling the resulting additional indoor air concentrations. Thus, hygienically conspicuous modeled indoor air concentrations of some toxicological relevant single components can be compared with published indoor air guideline values. Device specific emission rates enable a matching product assessment within one product group. Respecting the minimal, maximum and average value the tested electrical appliance may be classified with marketed products, whereas the median value represents the state of the art production. This benchmarking may support manufacturers in the product improvement and development process.


Scheid F.,University of Bonn | Lambert E.,University of Bonn | Maitra W.,University of Bonn | Niestrath M.,University of Bonn | And 4 more authors.
Tenside, Surfactants, Detergents | Year: 2016

Washing machines should not only deliver good removal of stains, but also take care of the garments. Mechanical action produced by the washing machine has a twofold impact: It supports the removal of stains, but it also influences the structure of the textiles negatively and is, therefore, critical to textile care. Most washing machines are currently assessed by consumer organisations and political regulations, such as energy labelling, just for their washing properties. However, a long programme may provide a good washing performance, but might also damage the textiles more than a shorter programme. Test specimens assessing the mechanical impact are well known and published, for example, IEC PAS 62473:2007, however, they are rarely used. Reasons may be poor knowledge about their effectiveness in assessing the mechanical action and their reaction to different washing conditions, for example, load size, temperature and duration of the washing programme. It was the task of this study to verify this relationship and confirm that the thread removal fabric, as specified in IEC PAS 62473:2007, adds additional information to the assessment of a washing process. As a result of a wide variation of washing parameters, it could be shown that this test fabric is almost independent of the washing temperature, but shows a clear correlation with the load size and the length of the washing process. The thread removal specimens add valuable additional information concerning a relevant parameter of the washing process. © Carl Hanser Publisher.


Frank G.,TUV Rheinland LGA Products GmbH | Kolb M.,TUV Rheinland LGA Products GmbH | Schelle C.,TUV Rheinland LGA Products GmbH
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft | Year: 2013

Compact fluorescent lights (CFL) represent an illumination alternative due to successive ban of traditionally used filament bulbs. The national and European enforcement of legally driven substitution and conversion to usage of CFL is associated with the assessment of a potential hazard risk arising from pollutant emissions. The article summarizes test results based upon test chamber examinations of randomly selected and commercially available CFL in comparison to illuminants produced by one specific manufacturer and directly provided from the routine production process (from identical batch). The CFL emission profiles detected under condition of use are assessed with regard to a potential indoor air contamination. The findings indicate that emission shares of detectable and quantifiable volatile organic compounds decline with increasing CFL usage period to hygienically unobjectionable indoor air concentrations. Differing test results were observed with regard to the emission profile of single emitters including released CMR substances, to emission rates concerning the initial switch-on period from 1 hour up to approximately 24 hours and to batch homogeneity.


With regard to test chamber examinations of leather samples to be evaluated qualitatively, analytically detectable total emissions of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs, SVOCs) will be decisively affected by selected conditioning parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, loading factor and area-specific air exchange rate. Moreover, the exposition mode of placing a leather sample into a test chamber has a crucial impact on quantifiable VOC test chamber concentrations determined at well-defined sampling points in time. Established test methods focus either on the approach of rear to rear testing of the seamed leather specimen or on the specific setting that both grain and the reverse velour side are exposed to emit volatiles. The current article points out which value deviations may arise with regard to quantifiable test chamber concentrations and calculated emission rates respecting different sample modifications. The analytical VOC determination was based upon gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The examinations reveal that the influence of diversified air exchange rates declines with an increasing test period. In the scope of sample surface exposure the reverse velour side dominates the contribution to total emission.

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