TUV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH

Köln, Germany

TUV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH

Köln, Germany
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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY-2007-8.2-01 | Award Amount: 5.43M | Year: 2008

A new polygeneration application with renewable energy sources will be planned and demonstrated for the fishery industry. The distributed energy system utilizes cleaning waste of a fish processing plant to produce biodiesel. The biodiesel is used to produce the locally needed cooling/freezing and heating energy. In addition, a power surplus is generated for the electricity network or local industrial use. The research contribution focuses on optimisation, simulation, validation and planning of piloted concepts. A energy integration auditing and optimisation tools will be developed to carry out feasibility studies for the fishery industry. The advanced CO2 based freezing/cooling system requires optimization and control system planning of special high-pressure equipments. The final biodiesel will be tested in appropriate engines. With a view to marketing possibilities the demonstration will take place in Vietnam. In the demonstration case, the main product of the fish processing plant is catfish filet (about 40 t/d). The fat content of 22 per cent in the fish cleaning waste results in a production of biodiesel of about 13 t/d. A part of biodiesel is used to produce electricity for the locally needed cooling/freezing (0.3 MW) and heating (1,3 MW) energy. In addition, a power surplus (0,8 MW) is generated for the local industrial use.

Haas R.,University of Cologne | Pinto J.G.,University of Cologne | Pinto J.G.,University of Reading | Born K.,University of Cologne | Born K.,TUV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2014

Windstorms are a main feature of the European climate and exert strong socioeconomic impacts. Large effort has been made in developing and enhancing models to simulate the intensification of windstorms, resulting footprints, and associated impacts. Simulated wind or gust speeds usually differ from observations, as regional climate models have biases and cannot capture all local effects. An approach to adjust regional climate model (RCM) simulations of wind and wind gust toward observations is introduced. For this purpose, 100 windstorms are selected and observations of 173 (111) test sites of the German Weather Service are considered for wind (gust) speed. Theoretical Weibull distributions are fitted to observed and simulated wind and gust speeds, and the distribution parameters of the observations are interpolated onto the RCM computational grid. A probability mapping approach is applied to relate the distributions and to correct the modeled footprints. The results are not only achieved for single test sites but for an area-wide regular grid. The approach is validated using root-mean-square errors on event and site basis, documenting that the method is generally able to adjust the RCM output toward observations. For gust speeds, an improvement on 88 of 100 events and at about 64% of the test sites is reached. For wind, 99 of 100 improved events and ~84% improved sites can be obtained. This gives confidence on the potential of the introduced approach for many applications, in particular those considering wind data. Key Points We introduced an approach to adjust RCM windstorm footprints to observations The method is generally able to enhance the results of dynamical downscaling The application of the approach produces better results for wind than for gusts ©2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

The overall objective of this proposal is to reduce the risk associated with investments in sustainable energy projects. The project results should increase trust from investors, financers and insurance companies. The project aims to establish a common practice for professional risk assessment based on technical and financial due diligence. The focus is on photovoltaic (PV) installations, with emphasis on projects on buildings or at the customer side of the electricity consumption meter and financed by professional investors. The project pursues the following specific objectives: - To develop, document and establish practices for evaluating and mitigating the technical risks associated with investments in photovoltaics - To develop, document and establish practices for valuing such risks when modeling the costs of a PV investment as investors do when evaluating the life cycle costs of such projects - To evaluate how these risks affect the electricity production and the expected return on investment in different business models - To enable the key actors, and particularly the financial market actors, to widely adopt the project results as best practices for the mitigation of risk of sustainable energy investments with current and new business models. The project will be based on large amount of empirical data available within the consortium and from other projects, allowing to formulate recommendations that are statistically significant and based on a large evidence base. The project will involve all relevant stakeholders being financial market actors, valuation and standardization entities, building and PV plant owners, industry, energy prosumers and policy makers. The impacts to be achieved are reduced uncertainty, increased investors confidence and trust, valuation methodologies agreed by the market, standardized descriptions of investments, labelling schemes or harmonized frameworks for investment, and support to national strategies for financing.

Herrmann W.,TUV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH | Schweiger M.,TUV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH | Tamizhmani G.,TÜV SÜD | Shisler B.,TÜV SÜD | Kamalaksha Cs.,TUV Rheinland India Pvt. Ltd.
2015 IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2015 | Year: 2015

During long-term operation of photovoltaic (PV) power plants soiling of PV module surface can cause significant energy yield losses. These are dependent on the site characteristics such as climatic conditions or surrounding environment, and also on the glazing characteristics of the PV module. This paper presents the results of an experimental study on annual soiling losses measured at two locations: a) Tempe (Arizona) with hot and dry climate, b) Chennai (India) with tropical climate. Soiling effects were studied by means of two mini-modules, of which one has been regularly cleaned whereas the other was exposed to natural soiling. For the first year of operation our results show 3.7% annual soiling losses for Tempe and 2.3% for Chennai. The contribution of angular losses caused by the change of the angular characteristic of the glass surface is approx. 22% for the Tempe test site. Comparative study of the soiling behavior of 3 types of PV glazing (standard glass, standard glass with antireflective coating, deeply textured glass) showed that AR coating is comparable to non-coated glass. For deeply textured glass we observed 7% higher annual soiling loss at Tempe test site. © 2015 IEEE.

Reil F.,TUV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH | Sepanski A.,TUV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH | Herrmann W.,TUV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH | Althaus J.,TUV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH | And 2 more authors.
Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference | Year: 2012

The work presented was carried out within a current German research project at TÜV Rheinland in Germany together with the Fraunhofer Institute ISE and the Fire Department of Munich, which examines fire risks and determines enhanced safety measures for PV systems. In principle, contact defects (due to production faults or thermo-mechanical fatigue) in the DC circuit of a module can be named as potential sources of arcs during the operating lifetime. This work reflects general strategies for qualifying risks at cell connectors in general and transfers them to arcing risks in PV modules. To generate technical data, 20 crystalline PV modules with soldering defects were exposed to different test sequences to reproduce similar faults such as focal overheating or even electric arcs. On this basis, combinations of dynamic mechanical or thermo-mechanical loads were applied with a forward bias to induce stressing on the current-carrying parts and connector joints in a module. The derivation of a potentially useful test method is given and production-oriented quality monitoring measures are proposed. © 2012 IEEE.

Herrmann W.,TUV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH | Bogdanski N.,TUV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH
Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference | Year: 2011

Understanding the degradation behavior of PV modules during long-term operation and developing realistic and effective procedures for accelerated testing that can simulate 25 years of operation requires a reliable database for outdoor weathering and for accelerated testing in the laboratory. To assess the effects of real-life weathering, we set up four test sites covering a wide range of climatic effects in terms of irradiation, ambient temperature and relative humidity. The test sites are located in Cologne, Germany (moderate climate), in Serpong, Indonesia (tropical climate), on the Zugspitze in the German Alps (high mountain climate) and in Sede Boqer in the Negev Desert of Israel (arid climate). The monitoring program surveyed the relevant meteorological parameters and temperatures of various crystalline silicon PV modules for open-rack mounting [1]. Our database covers a period of 3 years and suffices for comparing the weathering effects in the different climates. The database also allows comparisons of load levels under real-life conditions and under the test conditions during the accelerated testing of PV modules as defined by test standard IEC 61215. In an experimental study we subjected various crystalline silicon PV modules to extended thermal cycling and damp heat-testing, exceeding 200 cycles and 1000 hours respectively, in order to assess weaknesses in the module construction. Extended qualification testing revealed enhanced degradation after 2000 hours of testing with damp heat and after 400 cycles in thermal cycling. Standard IEC test conditions therefore do not suffice for determining weaknesses in module construction. The correlation between accelerated laboratory testing and outdoor weathering still requires further research. One particular problem is the question of tolerance ranges in product quality during module production. © 2011 IEEE.

Schweiger M.,TUV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH | Herrmann W.,TUV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH
2015 IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2015 | Year: 2015

The electrical performance and energy yield of 15 PV modules of different technologies were studied under four different climate conditions. Prior to outdoor exposure intensive laboratory tests were performed with regard to low-irradiance behavior, spectral dependence and temperature effects of the modules. Measurements according to IEC 61853-1 provided basic information about the non-linear behavior of PV modules. The spectral response was determined and the solar spectral irradiance was measured to gain detailed information about the spectral dependency of different technologies. The weather data was analyzed for each climatic region and the energy yield of each module was calculated and analyzed. © 2015 IEEE.

Reil F.,TUV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH | Sepanski A.,TUV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH | Raubach S.,TUV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH | Vosen M.,TUV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH | Dietrich E.,TUV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH
Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference | Year: 2013

The number of German PV installations reach in early 2013 1.4 million systems. On the basis of recent research which was carried out within a 3 year R&D-project of TÜV Rheinland with Fraunhofer ISE and several industry partners, around 75 cases were found where a PV system caused a fire through arc faults or hot spots. Out of these known incidents, 65 cases caused major damage whereas 10 faults lead to total loss of the system and building [1]. These numbers display that fire incidents caused by e.g. arc faults are a minority, but every case reveals that latent risks exist when defective installation or products are applied. This work focuses on the qualification of different arc noise spectra which displays a variety of characteristics depending on the electrode contacts, contact materials, implied PV solar simulator, PV array or whether the arc was ignited in a short circuit or being in series with a load resistor or even the inverter. © 2013 IEEE.

Reil F.,TUV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH | Baumann I.,TUV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH | Althaus J.,TUV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH | Gebhard S.,TUV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH
Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference | Year: 2013

Sand movement is categorized in saltation, surface creep and suspension. For the simulation of stresses caused by sand movement, suspension and saltation are of particular importance. As a basis for a simulation the annual amount of sand affecting a single photovoltaic (PV) module in a particular location is estimated. Basing on these estimations, this work discusses three test methods which are applied to electronic products or military equipment as potential technical test procedures for PV modules. The test methods within MIL STD 810G, IEC 60068-2-68 and IEC 60529 vary in terms of wind velocity, particle density, particle dimension and distribution of sand grains. The relevance of a wind-blown sand or a dust test is very crucial in arid regions. However, each individual location of a PV system has other basic conditions (e.g. grain characteristics, wind velocities,.). The expected service life of PV systems requires a reproducible test procedure representing long-term ageing and exposure effects. The main question is the reliability and the electrical safety of PV modules and other system components. Critical effects like abrasion on backsheets, cables, connectors or junction boxes could cause a loss of isolation. For the local energy yield it is furthermore relevant if shading effects caused by dust and sand are quantifiable to define cleaning cycles. Abrasion of glass can further influence the long-term power output of a PV system. Within this work furthermore alternatives to quartz dust as test medium are discussed, since quartz dust used for abrasion tests is known to pose great danger to test personnel by causing silicosis. The test methods discussed are open test systems with a single impact or closed circuit systems. The aim is to define an applicable test sequence which enables a confirmation of a resistance against weather phenomena with wind-blown sand. Consequently this work derives input for future standardization progress and the finding of an applicable test method. © 2013 IEEE.

Martinez S.,TUV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH | Fennel F.,TUV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH
Larmbekampfung | Year: 2013

Many current international standards and directives of acoustics require the evaluation of source related noise levels in order to reporting the noise impact. In some cases residual noise is inevitably recorded as interference. In other cases, it covers or masks the source noise which is why the survey of residual noise also very useful. Hence, measuring and calculation methods which take account of the statistically dependence of source and residual noise are needed to make accurate measurements and evaluations. Due to modern measuring techniques it is also possible to save a great number of parameters and large amounts of data. Another vital feature of the result is its statement about the uncertainty of measurements of the measured or calculated noise levels. Usually, normative determinations assume that the measured values in the detection of ambient noise and residual noise are statistically independent. In many cases this assumption is false and often impossible as a matter of principle. This paper illustrates the difficulty to detect acoustic properties including their accuracy in relation to the combined statistic distribution of noise levels within the range of source, residual and ambient noise. Our approaches are based on the conventional approaches according to GUM. Should the conventional approximation methods turn out to be unsatisfactory, numerical distributions which have been made available and parameterized by measurements or simulation, prove to be helpful. In this regard, the different toolkits for handling "bound" and "unbound" distributions have to be considered.

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