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Lunardi G.,Oncology Unit | Piccioli P.,IRCSS AOU San Martino IST | Bruzzi P.,IRCSS AOU San Martino IST | Notaro R.,Tumor Institute of Tuscany | And 13 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

Estrogen synthesis suppression induced by aromatase inhibitors in breast cancer (BC) patients may be affected by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the gene encoding aromatase enzyme, CYP19A1. We assessed the association between plasma estrone sulfate (ES), letrozole treatment, and four SNPs of CYP19A1 gene (rs10046 C>T, rs4646 G>T, rs749292 C>T, rs727479 T>G) which seem to be related to circulating estrogen levels. Patients were enrolled into a prospective, Italian multi-center clinical trial (Gruppo Italiano Mammella, GIM-5) testing the association of CYP19A1 SNPs with the efficacy of letrozole adjuvant therapy, in postmenopausal early BC patients. SNPs were identified from peripheral blood cell DNA. Plasma ES concentrations were evaluated by Radio Immuno Assay. Blood samples were obtained immediately before letrozole therapy (N = 204), at 6-weeks (N = 178), 6 (N = 152) and 12-months (N = 136) during treatment. Medians (IQR) of ES were 160 pg/mL (85-274) at baseline, 35 pg/mL (12-64) at 6-weeks, 29 pg/mL (17-48) at 6 months and 25 pg/mL (8-46) after 12 months treatment. No statistically significant association was evident between polymorphisms and ES circulating levels during letrozole therapy. Letrozole suppression of the aromatase enzyme function is not affected by polymorphisms of CYP19A1 gene in postmenopausal BC patients. © 2012 The Author(s). Source

Derosa L.,University of Pisa | Galli L.,University of Pisa | Orlandi P.,University of Pisa | Fioravanti A.,University of Pisa | And 11 more authors.

BACKGROUND: Docetaxel plus prednisone is currently the standard first-line treatment in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). The aim of this study was to assess the clinical activity and pharmacodynamic/pharmacogenetic profile of docetaxel plus prednisone in combination with metronomic cyclophosphamide in mCRPC patients.METHODS: Forty-one chemotherapynaive patients received docetaxel (60 mg/m2 intravenously every 3 weeks up to 12 cycles) and, from day 2, prednisone 10 mg/day, celecoxib 400 mg/day, and metronomic cyclophosphamide 50 mg/day, continuously. Plasma VEGF and bFGF were detected by ELISA. Real-time PCR-SNP analysis of VEGF gene was performed using an ABI PRISM 7900HT SDS and TaqMan SNP genotyping.RESULTS: Eighty-seven percent of patients were free of progression at 6 months. A decrease in prostate-specific antigen≥50% was observed in 82% of 39 evaluable patients, with a median time to progression of 12.3 months. Grade 3 adverse events were neutropenia (5%), thrombocytopenia, diarrhea, and stomatitis (2.5%). Median PFS and OS were 14.9 months (95% CI, 9.2-15.3 months) and 33.3 months (95% CI, 23-35.6 months), respectively. Of 11 patients (28%) with evaluable disease, 5 (44%) achieved a complete response, 2 (11%) a partial response, and 2 (11%) stable disease, whereas 2 showed disease progression. The 21154A/G VEGF polymorphism, plasma VEGF, and bFGF after the first cycle of chemotherapy may represent useful pharmacodynamic markers to predict better outcomes.CONCLUSIONS: The combination of docetaxel and oral metronomic chemotherapy is effective and well tolerated in mCRPC patients and may deserve further evaluation. Cancer 2014; 120: 3923-31. © 2014 American Cancer Society. Source

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