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Verhoeven R.H.A.,Comprehensive Cancer Center South | Janssen-Heijnen M.L.G.,Comprehensive Cancer Center South | Janssen-Heijnen M.L.G.,Viecuri Medical Center | Saum K.U.,German Cancer Research Center | And 8 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Introduction: Penile cancer is a rare neoplasm in Western countries, and detailed studies on trends in population-based survival of penile cancer have never been published before. We examined population-based trends in survival in Europe and the United States of America (USA). Methods: Data from 3297 European and 1820 American penile cancer patients, contributed by 12 European cancer registries and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the USA were included in this study. Period analysis techniques were used to examine relative survival trends overall, as well as for four geographic regions in Europe, and for the age groups 15-54, 55-64, 65-74 and 75+ for both populations between 1990-1995 and 2002-2007. Survival trends were assessed in a multiple regression model of relative excess risk including period of diagnosis, age and continent. Results: The 5-year relative survival of penile cancer patients increased statistically non-significantly from 65% to 70% in Europe and decreased (significantly) from 72% to 63% in the USA. Trends in age-specific 5-year relative survival did not find any significant improvement in either Europe or the USA. The multiple regression analysis confirmed the lack of survival trend, and found significantly higher relative excess risk with age, and, apparently due to lower survival before 2002-2007, higher risk in Europe. Conclusion: Survival for penile cancer patients has not improved in either Europe or the USA since at least 1990. The reasons for the decrease of survival in the USA remain unknown and to be explored. Stronger international cooperation in clinical research may be important to facilitate clinical progress in treatment and thereby improvement of survival of this rare malignancy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Crocetti E.,Tuscany Cancer Registry | De Angelis R.,Centro Nazionale Of Epidemiologia | Buzzoni C.,Tuscany Cancer Registry | Mariotto A.,NCI Inc | And 13 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Background:The objectives of this study were to quantitatively assess the geographic heterogeneity of cancer prevalence in selected Western Countries and to explore the associations between its determinants.Methods:For 20 cancer sites, 5-year cancer prevalence, incidence, and survival were observed and age standardised for the mid 2000s in the United States, Nordic European Countries, Italy, Australia, and France.Results:In Italy, 5-year crude prevalence for all cancers was 1.9% in men and 1.7% in women, while it was ∼1.5% in all other countries and sexes. After adjustment for the different age distribution of the populations, cancer prevalence in the United States was higher (20% in men and 10% in women) than elsewhere. For all cancers combined, the geographic heterogeneities were limited, though relevant for specific cancers (e.g., prostate, showing >30% higher prevalence in the United States, or lung, showing >50% higher prevalence in USA women than in other countries). For all countries, the correlations between differences of prevalence and differences of incidence were >0.9, while prevalence and survival were less consistently correlated.Conclusion:Geographic differences and magnitude of crude cancer prevalence were more strongly associated with incidence rates, influenced by population ageing, than with survival rates. These estimates will be helpful in allocating appropriate resources. © 2013 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved. Source


Allemani C.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Allemani C.,Analytical Epidemiology Unit | Sant M.,Analytical Epidemiology Unit | Weir H.K.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 36 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Breast cancer survival is reportedly higher in the US than in Europe. The first worldwide study (CONCORD) found wide international differences in age-standardized survival. The aim of this study is to explain these survival differences. Population-based data on stage at diagnosis, diagnostic procedures, treatment and follow-up were collected for about 20,000 women diagnosed with breast cancer aged 15-99 years during 1996-98 in 7 US states and 12 European countries. Age-standardized net survival and the excess hazard of death up to 5 years after diagnosis were estimated by jurisdiction (registry, country, European region), age and stage with flexible parametric models. Breast cancers were generally less advanced in the US than in Europe. Stage also varied less between US states than between European jurisdictions. Early, node-negative tumors were more frequent in the US (39%) than in Europe (32%), while locally advanced tumors were twice as frequent in Europe (8%), and metastatic tumors of similar frequency (5-6%). Net survival in Northern, Western and Southern Europe (81-84%) was similar to that in the US (84%), but lower in Eastern Europe (69%). For the first 3 years after diagnosis the mean excess hazard was higher in Eastern Europe than elsewhere: the difference was most marked for women aged 70-99 years, and mainly confined to women with locally advanced or metastatic tumors. Differences in breast cancer survival between Europe and the US in the late 1990s were mainly explained by lower survival in Eastern Europe, where low healthcare expenditure may have constrained the quality of treatment. Copyright © 2012 UICC. Source


Allemani C.,Analytical Epidemiology Unit | Storm H.,Danish Cancer Society | Voogd A.C.,Eindhoven Cancer Registry | Holli K.,University of Tampere | And 24 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

On a population-based sample of 13,500 European breast cancer patients mostly diagnosed in 1996-1998 and archived by 26 cancer registries, we used logistic regression to estimate odds of conservative surgery plus radiotherapy (BCS + RT) versus other surgery, in T1N0M0 cases by country, adjusted for age and tumour size. We also examined: BCS + RT in relation to total national expenditure on health (TNEH); chemotherapy use in N+ patients; tamoxifen use in oestrogen-positive patients; and whether ≥10 nodes were examined in lymphadenectomies. Stage, diagnostic examinations and treatments were obtained from clinical records. T1N0M0 cases were 33.0% of the total. 55.0% of T1N0M0 received BCS + RT, range 9.0% (Estonia) to 78.0% (France). Compared to France, odds of BCS + RT were lower in all other countries, even after adjusting for covariates. Women of 70-99 years had 67% lower odds of BCS + RT than women of 15-39 years. BCS + RT was 20% in low TNEH, 58% in medium TNEH, and 64% in high TNEH countries. Chemotherapy was given to 63.0% of N+ and 90.7% of premenopausal N+ (15-49 years), with marked variation by country, mainly in post-menopause (50-99 years). Hormonal therapy was given to 55.5% of oestrogen-positive cases, 44.6% at 15-49 years and 58.8% at 50-99 years; with marked variation across countries especially in premenopause. The variation in breast cancer care across Europe prior to the development of European guidelines was striking; older women received BCS + RT much less than younger women; and adherence to 'standard care' varied even among countries with medium/high TNEH, suggesting sub-optimal resource allocation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Maso L.D.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Suligoi B.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Franceschi S.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Braga C.,Italian National Cancer Institute | And 31 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2014

Background:: Cancer survival in persons with AIDS (PWA) after introduction of antiretroviral therapies remains poorly characterized. The aim is to provide population-based estimates of cancer survival, overall and for the most important cancer types in PWA, and a comparison with persons without AIDS (non-PWA) affected by the same cancer. Methods:: PWA with cancer at AIDS diagnosis or thereafter were individually matched with non-PWA by type of cancer, sex, age, year of diagnosis, area of living, and, for lymphomas, histological subtype. Five-year observed survival and hazard ratios (HRs) of death in PWA versus non-PWA with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Results:: We included 2262 Italian PWA and 4602 non-PWA with cancer diagnosed during 1986-2005. Between 1986 and 1995, and 1996 and 2005, 5-year survival for all cancers in PWA improved from 12% to 41% and the corresponding HR versus non-PWA decreased from 5.1 (95% CI: 4.3 to 6.1) to 2.9 (95% CI: 2.6 to 3.3). During 1996-2005, HRs were 2.0 (95% CI: 1.4 to 2.9) for Kaposi sarcoma, 3.4 (95% CI: 2.9 to 4.1) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and 2.4 (95% CI: 1.4 to 4.0) for cervical cancer. HRs were 2.5 (95% CI: 2.1 to 3.1) for all non-AIDS-defining cancers, 5.9 (95% CI: 3.1 to 11.2) for Hodgkin lymphoma, and 7.3 (95% CI: 2.8 to 19.2) for nonmelanoma skin cancer. A ≤3-fold survival difference was found for cancers of the stomach, liver, anus, lung, brain, and the most aggressive lymphoma subtypes. Conclusions:: The persisting, although narrowing, gap in cancer survival between PWA and non-PWA indicates the necessity of enhancing therapeutic approaches, so that PWA can be provided the same chances of survival observed in the general population, and improving cancer prevention and screening. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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