Darland D.C.,University of North Dakota |
Cain J.T.,University of North Dakota |
Berosik M.A.,University of North Dakota |
Saint-Geniez M.,Schepens Eye Research Institute |
And 9 more authors.
Developmental Biology | Year: 2011
This work was designed to determine the role of the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) isoforms during early neuroepithelial development in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), specifically in the forebrain. An emerging model of interdependence between neural and vascular systems includes VEGF, with its dual roles as a potent angiogenesis factor and neural regulator. Although a number of studies have implicated VEGF in CNS development, little is known about the role that the different VEGF isoforms play in early neurogenesis. We used a mouse model of disrupted VEGF isoform expression that eliminates the predominant brain isoform, VEGF164, and expresses only the diffusible form, VEGF120. We tested the hypothesis that VEGF164 plays a key role in controlling neural precursor populations in developing cortex. We used microarray analysis to compare gene expression differences between wild type and VEGF120 mice at E9.5, the primitive stem cell stage of the neuroepithelium. We quantified changes in PHH3-positive nuclei, neural stem cell markers (Pax6 and nestin) and the Tbr2-positive intermediate progenitors at E11.5 when the neural precursor population is expanding rapidly. Absence of VEGF164 (and VEGF188) leads to reduced proliferation without an apparent effect on the number of Tbr2-positive cells. There is a corresponding reduction in the number of mitotic spindles that are oriented parallel to the ventricular surface relative to those with a vertical or oblique angle. These results support a role for the VEGF isoforms in supporting the neural precursor population of the early neuroepithelium. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
Colon-Gaud C.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale |
Colon-Gaud C.,University of Puerto Rico at San Juan |
Colon-Gaud C.,University of Maryland University College |
Whiles M.R.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale |
And 7 more authors.
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2010
We quantified production and consumption of stream-dwelling tadpoles and insect grazers in a headwater stream in the Panamanian uplands for 2 years to assess their effects on basal resources and energy fluxes. At the onset of our study, this region had healthy, diverse amphibian populations, but a catastrophic disease-driven decline began in September 2004, which greatly reduced amphibian populations. Insect grazer production was 348 mg ash-free dry mass (AFDM) m-2 year-1 during the first year of the study and increased slightly to 402 mg AFDM m-2 year-1 during the second year. Prior to amphibian declines, resource consumption by grazers (tadpoles and insects) was estimated at 2.9 g AFDM m-2 year-1 of algal primary production, which was nearly twice the estimated amount available. Insect grazers alone accounted for c. 81% of total primary consumption. During the initial stages of the declines, consumption remained at c 2.9 g AFDM m-2 year-1, but only 35% of the available resource was being consumed and insect grazers accounted for c. 94% of total consumption. Production and resource consumption of some insect grazers increased during the second year, as tadpoles declined, indicating a potential for functional redundancy in this system. However, other insect grazer taxa declined or did not respond to tadpole losses, suggesting a potential for facilitation between tadpoles and some insects; differential responses among taxa resulted in the lack of a response by insect grazers as a whole. Our results suggest that before massive population declines, tadpoles exerted strong top-down control on algal production and interacted in a variety of ways with other primary consumers. As amphibian populations continue to decline around the globe, changes in the structure and function of freshwater habitats should be expected. Although our study was focused on tropical headwater streams, our results suggest that these losses of consumer diversity could influence other aquatic systems as well and may even reach to adjacent terrestrial environments. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Best L.G.,Turtle Mountain Community College |
Nadeau M.,Turtle Mountain Community College |
Davis K.,Turtle Mountain Community College |
Lamb F.,Turtle Mountain Community College |
And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology | Year: 2012
To determine the prevalence in an American Indian population of genetic variants with putative effects on immune function and determine if they are associated with pre-eclampsia (PE). Method of study In a study of 66 cases and 130 matched controls, six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with either previously demonstrated or postulated modulating effects on the immune system were genotyped. Allele frequencies and various genetic models were evaluated by conditional logistic regression in both univariate and multiply adjusted models. Results Although most genetic variants lacked evidence of association with PE, the minor allele of the CRP related, rs1205 SNP in a dominant model with adjustment for age at delivery, nulliparity, and body mass index, exhibited an odds ratio of 0.259 (95% CI of 0.08-0.81, P=0.020) in relation to severe PE (48 cases). The allelic prevalence of this variant was 46.1% in this population. Conclusion Of the six SNPs related to immune function in this study, a functional variant in the 3′UTR of the CRP gene was shown to be associated with severe PE in an American Indian population. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Best L.G.,Butte Industries Inc. |
Best L.G.,Turtle Mountain Community College |
O'Leary R.A.,Butte Industries Inc. |
O'Leary M.A.,Butte Industries Inc. |
Yracheta J.M.,Butte Industries Inc.
BMC Pulmonary Medicine | Year: 2016
Background: Asthma is recognized as intimately related to immunologic factors and inflammation, although there are likely multiple phenotypes and pathophysiologic pathways. Biomarkers of inflammation may shed light on causal factors and have potential clinical utility. Individual and population genetic factors are correlated with risk for asthma and improved understanding of these contributions could improve treatment and prevention of this serious condition. Methods: A population-based sample of 108 children with clinically defined asthma and 216 control children were recruited from a small community in the northern plains of the United States. A complete blood count, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, total IgE and specific antibodies to 5 common airborne antigens (CAA), in addition to basic demographic and anthropomorphic data were obtained. Logistic regression was primarily used to determine the association between these humoral factors and risk of asthma. Results: The body mass index (BMI) of those with asthma and their total leukocyte counts, percentage of eosinophils, and levels of total IgE were all greater than corresponding control values in univariate analysis. The presence of detectable, specific IgE antibodies to five common airborne antigens was more likely among cases compared with controls. In multivariate analysis, total IgE was independently associated with asthma; but not after inclusion of a cumulative measure of specific IgE sensitization. Conclusion: Many previously reported associations between anthropomorphic and immune factors and increased risk of asthma appear to be also present in this American Indian population. In this community, asthma is strongly associated with sensitization to CAA. © 2016 The Author(s).
LaVallie A.L.,Turtle Mountain Community College |
Asa E.,North Dakota State University |
Padmanabhan G.,North Dakota State University
ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2013
Community colleges in the United States are currently experiencing greatly increased enrollment (17% from 2007 to 2009)1 and, although traditionally concerned with two-year undergraduate education, have become the focus of programs which encourage research as a means of retaining and developing students who have chosen scientific fields as career choices. Historically, undergraduate research has not always been considered to be important or even practical, but in the wake of educational research showing that authentic, inquiry-based projects help students improve in math /science skills and also help students to maintain interest in science fields 2,3,4. Many broad-based funding agencies such as the National Science Foundation (NSF) and National Atmospheric and Space Agency (NASA) have found it germane to fund programs aimed at providing STEM-based research at earlier stages in students' education. Indeed, over the past 15 years, many graduate programs have come to expect undergraduate applicants to have some experience in undergraduate research; a lack of research experience can negatively impact applicant success5. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2013.
Nadeau M.,Turtle Mountain Community College |
Best L.,Turtle Mountain Community College
Public Health Genomics | Year: 2010
Due to previous negative experiences, some American Indian communities are distrustful of research in general and genetic research in particular. The Turtle Mountain Community College was awarded a National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant with 3 aims: (1) to study possible genetic influences on pre-eclampsia, (2) to encourage tribal college students to consider biomedical careers and (3) to develop the local research infrastructure. Retrospectively identified case (91) and control (188) participants were recruited into Phase I over a 3-year period and additional participants (71) were concurrently recruited from a prenatal clinic into a prospective case/control study, Phase II. This paper describes some of the challenges and solutions we encountered in the process of recruiting American Indian participants into a genetic epidemiologic study. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Oestreich J.H.,University of Nebraska Medical Center |
Best L.G.,Turtle Mountain Community College |
Dobesh P.P.,University of Nebraska Medical Center
American Heart Journal | Year: 2014
Background The prevalence of variant alleles of the CYP2C19 gene has been determined for most population groups, but not Native Americans. Furthermore, the overall effectiveness of clopidogrel and aspirin has not been well studied in Native Americans, although this group has high mortality rates for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Methods We recruited 50 volunteers from the Oglala Sioux Tribe with coronary artery disease taking aspirin and clopidogrel. Whole blood was collected for analysis using the VerifyNow P2Y12 and aspirin tests. Samples from the coronary artery disease patients and 50 additional tribal volunteers (n = 100 total) were genotyped for CYP2C19 variants*2,*3, and*17. Results The allele frequencies for CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*17 in the population group were 11% (95% CI 7%-16%) and 9% (95% CI 5%-13%), respectively. No subjects carried the CYP2C19*3 allele. The median PRU (P2Y12 reaction units) in the population group was 194 with wide variability (range 29-400). There was no significant effect of genotype on platelet aggregation as measured by the VerifyNow P2Y12 test (P =.77). The median ARU (aspirin reaction units) for the group was 437 (range 350-659), and 73% had aspirin reaction unit values <550. Conclusions The prevalence of variant CYP2C19 alleles is low in Native Americans of the Oglala Sioux Tribe compared with certain HapMap populations. The variable response to aspirin and clopidogrel in the Oglala Sioux Tribe is consistent with reported values for other groups as measured by the VerifyNow assay (Accumetrics, San Diego, CA). © 2014 Mosby, Inc.
Darland T.,University of North Dakota |
Darland T.,Turtle Mountain Community College |
Mauch J.T.,University of North Dakota |
Meier E.M.,University of North Dakota |
And 3 more authors.
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior | Year: 2012
Finding genetic polymorphisms and mutations linked to addictive behavior can provide important targets for pharmaceutical and therapeutic interventions. Forward genetic approaches in model organisms such as zebrafish provide a potentially powerful avenue for finding new target genes. In order to validate this use of zebrafish, the molecular nature of its reward system must be characterized. We have previously reported the use of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) as a reliable method for screening mutagenized fish for defects in the reward pathway. Here we test if CPP in zebrafish involves the dopaminergic system by co-treating fish with cocaine and dopaminergic antagonists. Sulpiride, a potent D2 receptor (DR2) antagonist, blocked cocaine-induced CPP, while the D1 receptor (DR1) antagonist SCH23390 had no effect. Acute cocaine exposure also induced a rise in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), an important enzyme in dopamine synthesis, and a significant decrease in the expression of elongation factor 1α (EF1α), a housekeeping gene that regulates protein synthesis. Cocaine selectively increased the ratio of TH/EF1α in the telencephalon, but not in other brain regions. The cocaine-induced change in TH/EF1α was blocked by co-treatment with sulpiride, but not SCH23390, correlating closely with the action of these drugs on the CPP behavioral response. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the drop in EF1α was selective for the dorsal nucleus of the ventral telencephalic area (Vd), a region believed to be the teleost equivalent of the striatum. Examination of TH mRNA and EF1α transcripts suggests that regulation of expression is post-transcriptional, but this requires further examination. These results highlight important similarities and differences between zebrafish and more traditional mammalian model organisms. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: TRIBAL COLLEGE & UNIVERS PROGR | Award Amount: 958.74K | Year: 2010
This collaboration among TCUP colleges Cankdeska Cikana Community College Community
College, CCCC, Ft. Berthold Community College, FBCC, Turtle Mountain Community College ,
TMCC, and Sitting Bull College, SBC, and North Dakota State University, NDSU, is the
culmination of more than 11 years of active engagement in STEM education on the reservation,
including a year-long academic sabbatical at TMCC by an engineering professor. It supports a
tribal college vision of expanded life-choices for reservation residents that could provide more
technical competency for tribal decision-making, infrastructure improvement and the
opportunity for personal and tribal advancement without loss of cultural heritage. For NDSU
the benefits would include expanded participation of culturally diverse students, shared
fulfillment of the 1862/1994 land grant mission, improved faculty-student communication and
interaction and expansion of the talent pool entering STEM professions. The heart of the
proposal is the interaction of tribal high school, tribal college, mainstream University and
engineering profession stakeholders to facilitate the recruitment, education and support of
tribal students to acquire and hone the skills that will allow them to enter the engineering
profession or contribute in some other fashion to their communities and the nation. The
proposal will accomplish this vision by impacting students through interactions with faculty/
staff, curriculum and supporting functions/agencies. All of this will be accomplished in a
culturally supportive fashion.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: TRIBAL COLLEGE & UNIVERS PROGR | Award Amount: 495.00K | Year: 2016
A goal of the Tribal Colleges and Universities Program (TCUP) is to increase the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) instructional and research capacities of specific institutions of higher education that serve the Nations indigenous students. The PEEC-II track provides support for studies or educational research conducted by institutions that have had earlier Pre-Engineering Education Collaborative (PEEC) awards. The intent of PEEC-II is to capture, analyze, and disseminate the impact of these awards on the participating institutions, faculty, or students, and their communities. PEEC and PEEC-II are partnerships between TCUP and the Directorate for Engineering.
This collaboration among TCUP colleges Sitting Bull College (SBC), Cankdeska Cikana Community College (CCCC), Nueta Hidatsa Sahnish College (NHSC), and Turtle Mountain Community College (TMCC), and North Dakota State University (NDSU), is the culmination of more than 15 years of active engagement in STEM education on North Dakota reservations. It builds on the foundation of their PEEC award which created formal partnerships, implemented student support structures at NDSU, and developed means to support pre-engineering coursework at remote tribal college locations through distance learning and support of tribal college faculty. The goals of this project are to 1) investigate and document the relationship between a new hybrid distance learning model applied to engineering education and its impact on recruitment, persistence and graduation of American Indian students, and 2) investigate and document the critical elements of the learning and support environments that can improve student success within engineering majors.
Along with creating sustainable and supportive pathways to engineering degrees for American Indian students, the broader impact of this project will come from the value of the distance learning model and its assessment, disseminated broadly, which can support STEM learning at the participating institutions as well as at other institution partnerships that are trying to improve pathways between rural or isolated schools and four-year institutions.