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Best L.G.,Butte Industries Inc. | Best L.G.,Turtle Mountain Community College | O'Leary R.A.,Butte Industries Inc. | O'Leary M.A.,Butte Industries Inc. | Yracheta J.M.,Butte Industries Inc.
BMC Pulmonary Medicine | Year: 2016

Background: Asthma is recognized as intimately related to immunologic factors and inflammation, although there are likely multiple phenotypes and pathophysiologic pathways. Biomarkers of inflammation may shed light on causal factors and have potential clinical utility. Individual and population genetic factors are correlated with risk for asthma and improved understanding of these contributions could improve treatment and prevention of this serious condition. Methods: A population-based sample of 108 children with clinically defined asthma and 216 control children were recruited from a small community in the northern plains of the United States. A complete blood count, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, total IgE and specific antibodies to 5 common airborne antigens (CAA), in addition to basic demographic and anthropomorphic data were obtained. Logistic regression was primarily used to determine the association between these humoral factors and risk of asthma. Results: The body mass index (BMI) of those with asthma and their total leukocyte counts, percentage of eosinophils, and levels of total IgE were all greater than corresponding control values in univariate analysis. The presence of detectable, specific IgE antibodies to five common airborne antigens was more likely among cases compared with controls. In multivariate analysis, total IgE was independently associated with asthma; but not after inclusion of a cumulative measure of specific IgE sensitization. Conclusion: Many previously reported associations between anthropomorphic and immune factors and increased risk of asthma appear to be also present in this American Indian population. In this community, asthma is strongly associated with sensitization to CAA. © 2016 The Author(s).

Colon-Gaud C.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Colon-Gaud C.,University of Puerto Rico at San Juan | Colon-Gaud C.,University of Maryland University College | Whiles M.R.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | And 7 more authors.
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2010

We quantified production and consumption of stream-dwelling tadpoles and insect grazers in a headwater stream in the Panamanian uplands for 2 years to assess their effects on basal resources and energy fluxes. At the onset of our study, this region had healthy, diverse amphibian populations, but a catastrophic disease-driven decline began in September 2004, which greatly reduced amphibian populations. Insect grazer production was 348 mg ash-free dry mass (AFDM) m-2 year-1 during the first year of the study and increased slightly to 402 mg AFDM m-2 year-1 during the second year. Prior to amphibian declines, resource consumption by grazers (tadpoles and insects) was estimated at 2.9 g AFDM m-2 year-1 of algal primary production, which was nearly twice the estimated amount available. Insect grazers alone accounted for c. 81% of total primary consumption. During the initial stages of the declines, consumption remained at c 2.9 g AFDM m-2 year-1, but only 35% of the available resource was being consumed and insect grazers accounted for c. 94% of total consumption. Production and resource consumption of some insect grazers increased during the second year, as tadpoles declined, indicating a potential for functional redundancy in this system. However, other insect grazer taxa declined or did not respond to tadpole losses, suggesting a potential for facilitation between tadpoles and some insects; differential responses among taxa resulted in the lack of a response by insect grazers as a whole. Our results suggest that before massive population declines, tadpoles exerted strong top-down control on algal production and interacted in a variety of ways with other primary consumers. As amphibian populations continue to decline around the globe, changes in the structure and function of freshwater habitats should be expected. Although our study was focused on tropical headwater streams, our results suggest that these losses of consumer diversity could influence other aquatic systems as well and may even reach to adjacent terrestrial environments. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Oestreich J.H.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Best L.G.,Turtle Mountain Community College | Dobesh P.P.,University of Nebraska Medical Center
American Heart Journal | Year: 2014

Background The prevalence of variant alleles of the CYP2C19 gene has been determined for most population groups, but not Native Americans. Furthermore, the overall effectiveness of clopidogrel and aspirin has not been well studied in Native Americans, although this group has high mortality rates for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Methods We recruited 50 volunteers from the Oglala Sioux Tribe with coronary artery disease taking aspirin and clopidogrel. Whole blood was collected for analysis using the VerifyNow P2Y12 and aspirin tests. Samples from the coronary artery disease patients and 50 additional tribal volunteers (n = 100 total) were genotyped for CYP2C19 variants*2,*3, and*17. Results The allele frequencies for CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*17 in the population group were 11% (95% CI 7%-16%) and 9% (95% CI 5%-13%), respectively. No subjects carried the CYP2C19*3 allele. The median PRU (P2Y12 reaction units) in the population group was 194 with wide variability (range 29-400). There was no significant effect of genotype on platelet aggregation as measured by the VerifyNow P2Y12 test (P =.77). The median ARU (aspirin reaction units) for the group was 437 (range 350-659), and 73% had aspirin reaction unit values <550. Conclusions The prevalence of variant CYP2C19 alleles is low in Native Americans of the Oglala Sioux Tribe compared with certain HapMap populations. The variable response to aspirin and clopidogrel in the Oglala Sioux Tribe is consistent with reported values for other groups as measured by the VerifyNow assay (Accumetrics, San Diego, CA). © 2014 Mosby, Inc.

LaVallie A.L.,Turtle Mountain Community College | Asa E.,North Dakota State University | Padmanabhan G.,North Dakota State University
ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2013

Community colleges in the United States are currently experiencing greatly increased enrollment (17% from 2007 to 2009)1 and, although traditionally concerned with two-year undergraduate education, have become the focus of programs which encourage research as a means of retaining and developing students who have chosen scientific fields as career choices. Historically, undergraduate research has not always been considered to be important or even practical, but in the wake of educational research showing that authentic, inquiry-based projects help students improve in math /science skills and also help students to maintain interest in science fields 2,3,4. Many broad-based funding agencies such as the National Science Foundation (NSF) and National Atmospheric and Space Agency (NASA) have found it germane to fund programs aimed at providing STEM-based research at earlier stages in students' education. Indeed, over the past 15 years, many graduate programs have come to expect undergraduate applicants to have some experience in undergraduate research; a lack of research experience can negatively impact applicant success5. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2013.

Darland D.C.,University of North Dakota | Cain J.T.,University of North Dakota | Berosik M.A.,University of North Dakota | Saint-Geniez M.,Schepens Eye Research Institute | And 9 more authors.
Developmental Biology | Year: 2011

This work was designed to determine the role of the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) isoforms during early neuroepithelial development in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), specifically in the forebrain. An emerging model of interdependence between neural and vascular systems includes VEGF, with its dual roles as a potent angiogenesis factor and neural regulator. Although a number of studies have implicated VEGF in CNS development, little is known about the role that the different VEGF isoforms play in early neurogenesis. We used a mouse model of disrupted VEGF isoform expression that eliminates the predominant brain isoform, VEGF164, and expresses only the diffusible form, VEGF120. We tested the hypothesis that VEGF164 plays a key role in controlling neural precursor populations in developing cortex. We used microarray analysis to compare gene expression differences between wild type and VEGF120 mice at E9.5, the primitive stem cell stage of the neuroepithelium. We quantified changes in PHH3-positive nuclei, neural stem cell markers (Pax6 and nestin) and the Tbr2-positive intermediate progenitors at E11.5 when the neural precursor population is expanding rapidly. Absence of VEGF164 (and VEGF188) leads to reduced proliferation without an apparent effect on the number of Tbr2-positive cells. There is a corresponding reduction in the number of mitotic spindles that are oriented parallel to the ventricular surface relative to those with a vertical or oblique angle. These results support a role for the VEGF isoforms in supporting the neural precursor population of the early neuroepithelium. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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