Turner Enterprises Incorporated

Bozeman, MT, United States

Turner Enterprises Incorporated

Bozeman, MT, United States

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Collings P.J.,Swarthmore College | Evans P.,Turner Enterprises Inc.
Journal of the Franklin Institute | Year: 2010

Ted Turner received the 2006 Boxer Award for business leadership because of his sharp business skills and his unprecedented philanthropy. Turner began his career as an account executive with Turner Advertising Company and entered the television business in 1970 when he acquired Atlanta independent UHF station channel 17. In 1976, Turner purchased Major League Baseball's Atlanta Braves and launched TBS Superstation. The following year, Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. acquired the National Basketball Association's Atlanta Hawks and in 1980 Turner launched CNN, the world's first live, 24-h global news network. Turner has also made his mark as one of the most influential philanthropists in the US. He is the Chairman of the Turner Foundation, Inc. founded in 1990, which supports efforts for improving air and water quality, developing a sustainable energy future to protect our climate, safeguarding environmental health, maintaining wildlife habitat protection, and developing practices and policies to curb population growth rates.


Douglas K.C.,Texas A&M University | Halbert N.D.,Texas A&M University | Kolenda C.,Texas A&M University | Kolenda C.,Vitality | And 4 more authors.
Mitochondrion | Year: 2011

Complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes from 43 bison and bison-cattle hybrids were sequenced and compared with other bovids. Selected animals reflect the historical range and current taxonomic structure of bison. This study identified regions of potential nuclear-mitochondrial incompatibilities in hybrids, provided a complete mtDNA phylogenetic tree for this species, and uncovered evidence of bison population substructure. Seventeen bison haplotypes defined by 66 polymorphic sites were discovered, whereas 728 fixed differences and 86 non-synonymous mutations were identified between bison and bison-cattle hybrid sequences. The potential roles of the mtDNA genome in the function of hybrid animals and bison taxonomy are discussed. © 2010.


Andrews T.M.,University of Georgia | Shepard B.B.,Wildlife Conservation Society | Litt A.R.,Montana State University | Kruse C.G.,Turner Enterprises Incorporated | And 2 more authors.
North American Journal of Fisheries Management | Year: 2013

Translocations are frequently used to increase the abundance and range of endangered fishes. One factor likely to affect the outcome of translocations is fish movement. We introduced embryos from five Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi populations (both hatchery and wild) at five different locations within a fishless watershed. We then examined the movement of age-1 and age-2 fish and looked for differences in movement distance among source populations and among introduction sites; we also examined the interactions among age, population, and introduction site. At age 1, most individuals (90.9%) remained within 1,000 m their introduction sites. By age 2, the majority of individuals (58.3%) still remained within 1,000 m of their introduction site, but considerably more individuals had moved downstream, some more than 6,000 m from their introduction site. We observed a significant interaction between age and source population (F 4, 1077 = 15.45, P < 0.0001) as well as between age and introduction site (F 41, 1077 = 11.39, P < 0.0008), so we presented results in the context of these interactions. Within age-groups, we observed differences in movement behavior among source populations and among donor populations of Westslope Cutthroat Trout. We discuss these findings in light of previous research on juvenile salmonid movement. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Billman H.G.,Idaho State University | Billman H.G.,Bozeman Fish Technology Center | St-Hilaire S.,Idaho State University | Kruse C.G.,Turner Enterprises Inc | And 2 more authors.
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society | Year: 2011

The piscicide rotenone is commonly used to remove nonnative fishes from natural aquatic systems. While the effects of rotenone on fish are well documented, the effects of this chemical on amphibians are less well known. We determined the toxicity of the rotenone formulation CFT Legumine (5% rotenone) to three ages-Gosner age ranges 21-25, 30-35, and 40-45-of tadpoles of the Columbia spotted frog Rana luteiventris and the boreal toad Anaxyrus boreas under laboratory conditions. Tadpoles of both species were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/L CFT Legumine (0.005, 0.025, and 0.050 mg/L rotenone, respectively) in static, 96-h exposure trials; surviving individuals were placed in rotenone-free water and raised until metamorphosis. In an additional experiment, Columbia spotted frog tadpoles were exposed to 1.0 mg/L CFT Legumine for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h before being placed in rotenone-free water for the duration of a 96-h exposure period. Tadpole mortality increased with increases in CFT Legumine concentration and exposure period. Individuals exposed to 1.0 mg/L of product experienced significantly greater mortality than did control tadpoles (P < 0.001), with 99-100% mortality occurring in the youngest age-group (Gosner 21-25) in both species. In Columbia spotted frog tadpoles, mortality decreased as age increased, while age did not affect mortality in boreal toad tadpoles. Rotenone produced no biologically significant effects on growth or metamorphosis. Our findings suggest that the use of 1.0 mg/L CFT Legumine to remove nonnative fish may cause significant mortality to larval amphibians if they are exposed for 96 h; exposures to lower dosages (0.5 mg/L of product) or for shorter durations (≤4 h), however, resulted in less mortality. Fisheries managers can use these results to improve amphibian conservation in fish restoration areas and reduce the impacts on larval amphibian populations. © American Fisheries Society 2011.


Billman H.G.,Idaho State University | Kruse C.G.,Turner Enterprises Incorporated | St-Hilaire S.,Idaho State University | Koel T.M.,Yellowstone Center for Resources | And 2 more authors.
North American Journal of Fisheries Management | Year: 2012

Fisheries managers are restoring native populations by removing nonnative fishes worldwide. Increasingly, the piscicide rotenone is used to accomplish this. Fish introductions and removals change the aquatic environment, and it is important to consider the impacts of these actions on nontarget species, including amphibians. Laboratory experiments have shown that rotenone can negatively affect tadpoles. We therefore assessed the effects of rotenone used on two wild amphibian populations. The commercial piscicide formulation CFT Legumine (5% rotenone) was applied at 1 mg/L (50 μg/L rotenone) to a lake containing nonnative trout in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) in 2006 and two fishless wetlands on private lands in southwestern Montana in 2008. Amphibian surveys were conducted immediately prior to and after the rotenone treatments to obtain tadpole population estimates. Follow-up surveys were conducted 1 year posttreatment to estimate tadpole recovery. In YNP, additional surveys were conducted 2 and 3 years postapplication to observe longer-term effects of fish removal and the subsequent introduction of native fish. Within 24 h following application of rotenone, there was 100% mortality in gill-breathing tadpoles, but nongill-breathing metamorphs, juveniles, and adults were apparently unaffected. In the years following, tadpoles repopulated all waters and population levels were similar to, or, in the case of YNP because of concurrent fish removal, higher than pretreatment levels. In YNP, tadpole abundance and distribution decreased after westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi were stocked in the treated lake. © American Fisheries Society 2012.


Turner T.F.,University of New Mexico | Osborne M.J.,University of New Mexico | McPhee M.V.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Kruse C.G.,Turner Enterprises Incorporated
Conservation Genetics | Year: 2015

In desert streams, fishes and other organisms that depend on surface water are predicted to inhabit smaller and more isolated wetted reaches, while the frequency and severity of disturbance is expected to increase under most climate change models. Together, these factors should reduce population genetic diversity and persistence probabilities. In this study, our goal was to understand genetic responses of stream fish populations to disturbance in an intermittent stream network. This network is occupied by Rio Grande sucker (Pantosteus plebeius) that is native to highland desert streams in North America. Sample localities in upland perennial reaches were connected by moderate to high levels of gene flow even when separated by up to a 30-km intermittent reach. However, drier and lower-elevation reaches were significant barriers to gene flow. Effects of genetic drift (lower allelic diversity and higher levels of inbreeding) were more pronounced in the watershed with fewest wetted reaches. Temporal analysis of genetic diversity indicated that streams with several spatially distinct wetted reaches were more genetically resistant to wildfire-induced demographic bottlenecks than a stream with only one wetted reach. Maintenance of multiple wetted reaches within streams and facilitated gene flow among watersheds could slow losses of genetic diversity in upland desert stream fishes, and will be important strategies for conserving stream biodiversity in the face of habitat fragmentation and disturbance related to climate change. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Derr J.N.,Texas A&M University | Hedrick P.W.,Arizona State University | Halbert N.D.,Texas A&M University | Plough L.,University of Southern California | And 6 more authors.
Conservation Biology | Year: 2012

Hybridization between endangered species and more common species is a significant problem in conservation biology because it may result in extinction or loss of adaptation. The historical reduction in abundance and geographic distribution of the American plains bison (Bison bison bison) and their recovery over the last 125 years is well documented. However, introgression from domestic cattle (Bos taurus) into the few remaining bison populations that existed in the late 1800s has now been identified in many modern bison herds. We examined the phenotypic effect of this ancestry by comparing weight and height of bison with cattle or bison mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Santa Catalina Island, California (U.S.A.), a nutritionally stressful environment for bison, and of a group of age-matched feedlot bison males in Montana, a nutritionally rich environment. The environmental and nutritional differences between these 2 bison populations were very different and demonstrated the phenotypic effect of domestic cattle mtDNA in bison over a broad range of conditions. For example, the average weight of feedlot males that were 2 years of age was 2.54 times greater than that of males from Santa Catalina Island. In both environments, bison with cattle mtDNA had lower weight compared with bison with bison mtDNA, and on Santa Catalina Island, the height of bison with cattle mtDNA was lower than the height of bison with bison mtDNA. These data support the hypothesis that body size is smaller and height is lower in bison with domestic cattle mtDNA and that genomic integrity is important for the conservation of the American plains bison. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.


Andrews T.C.,Montana State University | Andrews T.C.,University of Georgia | Shepard B.B.,Montana Fish | Litt A.R.,Montana State University | And 6 more authors.
North American Journal of Fisheries Management | Year: 2016

The distributions of most native trout species in western North America have been severely reduced, and conservation of many of these species will require translocation into vacant habitats following removal of nonnative species. A critical question managers have is “Does it matter which donor sources are used for these translocations?” We present a case study that addressed this question for a large native trout translocation project in Montana. We introduced embryos from five source populations of Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi to a large, fishless watershed in Montana following removal of nonnative fish with piscicides. Source populations providing embryos for translocations were three nearby (<120 km) wild populations, the state of Montana’s captive Westslope Cutthroat Trout hatchery conservation population (initiated 32 years ago using fish from wild populations located >350 km from the translocation site), and a population in captivity for one generation comprised of individuals from the three wild populations used as single sources for this project, which were variably crossed (59% within populations and 41% between populations) to provide embryos. We used remote-site incubators at six different sites to introduce approximately 35,000 embryos from 400 genotyped parents. We later resampled and genotyped 1,450 of these individuals at age 1 and age 2. Juvenile survival for the more genetically diverse Montana Westslope Cutthroat Trout conservation population was twice as high as for other source populations, even though these other source populations were geographically closer to the translocation site than populations used to make the Montana Westslope Cutthroat Trout conservation population. Body weight for progeny from the two captive populations was higher than for progeny from wild source populations, and some differences were observed in body condition among source populations. Continued monitoring over several generations will be necessary to determine the eventual contributions of each source population and the relevance of these initial findings. Received October 9, 2015; accepted February 27, 2016 Published online July 20, 2016 © American Fisheries Society 2016.

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