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Turku, Finland

Sadeghi M.,University of Helsinki | Aronen M.,Turku City Hospital | Chen T.,University of Helsinki | Jartti L.,Turku City Hospital | And 4 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) and trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV) are recently found pathogens causing two rare skin disorders, Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) and trichodysplasia spinulosa (TS). MCC is proportionally common in the elderly and most often is associated with immunosuppression. TS is a folliculocentric infection seen in patients in an immunocompromised state. Little or no baseline information exists, however, on the prevalences of these two viruses among the elderly. Epidemiologic data on this population could help in understanding their natural biology. We wished to determine the occurrences and blood levels of MCPyV and TSPyV DNAs among the elderly and any association between the prevalences of their corresponding antiviral IgG antibodies.Methods: From 394 hospitalized elderly individuals (age ≥65 years) with respiratory symptoms, cardiovascular, and other diseases, we studied 621 serum samples by four different real-time quantitative (q) PCRs, two for the DNAs of MCPyV and two for TSPyV. The IgG antibodies for both viruses among 481 serum samples of 326 subjects were measured with enzyme immunoassays (EIAs), using as antigen recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs).Results: Of the 394 patients, 39 (9.9%) were positive at least once for MCPyV DNA by the LT PCR, and 33 (8.4%) by the VP1 PCR, while 6 (1.5%) were positive by both PCR assays. In general, the viral DNA copy numbers were low. In sharp contrast, no TSPyV DNA was detectable with qPCRs for the corresponding genomic regions. The IgG seroprevalence of MCPyV was 59.6% and of TSPyV, 67.3%.Conclusions: MCPyV DNA, unlike TSPyV DNA, occurs in low copy number in serum samples from a notable proportion of aging individuals. Whether this reflects enhanced viral replication possibly due to waning immune surveillance, and is associated with increased MCC risk, deserves exploration. © 2012 Sadeghi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Jartti T.,University of Turku | Hedman K.,University of Helsinki | Jartti L.,Turku City Hospital | Ruuskanen O.,University of Turku | And 2 more authors.
Reviews in Medical Virology | Year: 2012

Four species of human bocavirus (HBoV) have been recently discovered and classified in the Bocavirus genus (family Parvoviridae, subfamily Parvovirinae). Although detected both in respiratory and stool samples worldwide, HBoV1 is predominantly a respiratory pathogen, whereas HBoV2, HBoV3, and HBoV4 have been found mainly in stool. A variety of signs and symptoms have been described in patients with HBoV infection including rhinitis, pharyngitis, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, pneumonia, acute otitis media, fever, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Many of these potential manifestations have not been systematically explored, and they have been questioned because of high HBoV co-infection rates in symptomatic subjects and high HBoV detection rates in asymptomatic subjects. However, evidence is mounting to show that HBoV1 is an important cause of lower respiratory tract illness. The best currently available diagnostic approaches are quantitative PCR and serology. This concise review summarizes the current clinical knowledge on HBoV species. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Mattila E.,University of Helsinki | Uusitalo-Seppala R.,Satakunta Central Hospital | Wuorela M.,Turku City Hospital | Lehtola L.,Maria Hospital | And 9 more authors.
Gastroenterology | Year: 2012

Background & Aims: Treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with antibiotics leads to recurrences in up to 50% of patients. We investigated the efficacy of fecal transplantation in treatment of recurrent CDI. Methods: We reviewed records from 70 patients with recurrent CDI who had undergone fecal transplantation. Fecal transplantation was performed at colonoscopy by infusing fresh donor feces into cecum. Before transplantation, the patients had whole-bowel lavage with polyethylene glycol solution. Clinical failure was defined as persistent or recurrent symptoms and signs, and a need for new therapy. Results: During the first 12 weeks after fecal transplantation, symptoms resolved in all patients who did not have strain 027 C difficile infections. Of 36 patients with 027 C difficile infection, 32 (89%) had a favorable response; all 4 nonresponders had a pre-existing serious condition, caused by a long-lasting diarrheal disease or comorbidity and subsequently died of colitis. During the first year after transplantation, 4 patients with an initial favorable response had a relapse after receiving antibiotics for unrelated causes; 2 were treated successfully with another fecal transplantation and 2 with antibiotics for CDI. Ten patients died of unrelated illnesses within 1 year after transplantation. No immediate complications of fecal transplantation were observed. Conclusions: Fecal transplantation through colonoscopy seems to be an effective treatment for recurrent CDI and also for recurrent CDI caused by the virulent C difficile 027 strain. © 2012 AGA Institute. Source

Jartti T.,University of Turku | Jartti L.,Turku City Hospital | Ruuskanen O.,University of Turku | Soderlund-Venermo M.,University of Helsinki
Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine | Year: 2012

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The first era in the discoveries of respiratory viruses occured between 1933 and 1965 when influenza virus, enteroviruses, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus and coronavirus (CoV) were found by virus culture. In the 1990s, the development of high throughput viral detection and diagnostics instruments increased diagnostic sensitivity and enabled the search for new viruses. This article briefly reviews the clinical significance of newly discovered respiratory viruses. RECENT FINDINGS: In 2001, the second era in the discoveries of respiratory viruses began, and several new respiratory viruses and their subgroups have been found: human metapneumovirus, CoVs NL63 and HKU1, human bocavirus and human rhinovirus C and D groups. SUMMARY: Currently, a viral cause of pediatric respiratory illness is identifiable in up to 95% of cases, but the detection rates decrease steadily by age, to 30-40% in the elderly. The new viruses cause respiratory illnesses such as common cold, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumonia. Rarely, acute respiratory failure may occur. The clinical role of other new viruses, KI and WU polyomaviruses and the torque teno virus, as respiratory pathogens is not clear. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. Source

Salomaa V.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Havulinna A.S.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Koukkunen H.,Kuopio University Hospital | Karja-Koskenkari P.,University of Oulu | And 8 more authors.
Heart | Year: 2013

Objective: To examine the incidence, mortality and case fatality of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Finland during 1993-2007 and to create forecasts of the absolute numbers of ACS cases in the future, taking into account the aging of the population. Design: Community surveillance study and modelled forecasts of the future. Setting and methods: Two sets of population-based coronary event register data from Finland (FINAMI and the National Cardiovascular Disease Register (CVDR)). Bayesian age-period-cohort (APC) modelling. Participants: 24 905 observed ACS events in the FINAMI register and 364 137 in CVDR. Main outcome measures: Observed trends of ACS events during 1993-2007, forecasted numbers of ACS cases, and the prevalence of ACS survivors until the year 2050. Results: In the FINAMI register, the average annual declines in age-standardised incidence of ACS were 1.6% (p<0.001) in men and 1.8% (p<0.001) in women. For 28-day case fatality of incident ACS, the average annual declines were 4.1% (p<0.001) in men and 6.7% (p<0.001) in women. Findings in the country-wide CVDR data were consistent with the FINAMI register. The APC model, based on the CVDR data, suggested that both the absolute numbers of ACS events and the prevalence of ACS survivors reached their peak in Finland around 1990, have declined since then, and very likely will continue to decline until 2050. Conclusions: The ACS event rates and absolute numbers of cases have declined steeply in Finland. The declining trends are likely to continue in the future despite the aging of the population. Source

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