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Myllynen S.,Abo Akademi University | Wasberg M.,University of Turku | Wasberg M.,Turku Center for Biotechnology
Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry

Electrochemical, metal-centred partial oxidation of the electrodeposited d8 Ru-Ru bonded chain [Ru0(bpy)(CO)2] n results in high electrical conductivity on the order of 10 -1 S cm-1. The partial oxidation of Ru0 is reversible in presence of charge-compensating PF6- and ClO4- anions, and quartz crystal microbalance data show that the doping/undoping process is accompanied with transfer of unsolvated electrolyte anions. For BF4- and Cl- the process is more complex and in the chloride-case the doping results in break-up of the polymer film. The conductivity of the film is linearly dependent on the electrochemically controlled doping level. Spectroscopic evidence for charge delocalisation is obtained in the near-IR region, with the absorbance proportional to the doping level. The conduction process is thermally activated and ohmic behaviour is found for films both in electrolyte and gas phase. The microscopic structure of dry polymeric films is studied by SEM and anisotropic growth of cone-shaped columns is found. Linear increase in film thickness with deposition charge is obtained above 20 μm with a volume yield corresponding to a density 90% of the X-ray diffraction derived value reported in literature. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Elo L.L.,University of Turku | Elo L.L.,Turku Center for Biotechnology | Schwikowski B.,Institute Pasteur Paris
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery

The popularity of proteomics in biomedical research has grown with the development of advanced measurement technologies. This has enabled highthroughput protein expression profiling, modification-specific proteomics, and global protein-protein interaction maps. Although proteomics has great potential in providing deeper understanding of the role of individual proteins and protein networks in disease and in unveiling the underlying disease mechanisms, challenges arise in transforming the large-scale experimental data into biomedical knowledge for clinical practice and drug development. In particular, sophisticated computational tools are required to interpret the high-dimensional proteomic datasets that typically reflect not only biological information, but also technical biases and limitations. This review gives an overview of the role of data mining in biomedical applications of proteomics, with a focus on data from mass spectrometry-based expression profiling studies. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Vesala L.,University of Jyvaskyla | Salminen T.S.,University of Jyvaskyla | Laiho A.,Turku Center for Biotechnology | Hoikkala A.,University of Jyvaskyla | Kankare M.,University of Jyvaskyla
Insect Molecular Biology

The importance of high and low temperature tolerance in adaptation to changing environmental conditions has evoked new interest in modulations in gene expression and metabolism linked with stress tolerance. We investigated the effects of rapid cold hardening and cold acclimatization on the chill coma recovery times of two Drosophila virilis group species, Drosophila montana and D. virilis, with different distributions and utilized a candidate gene approach to trace changes in their gene expression during and after the cold treatments. The study showed that cold acclimatization clearly decreases chill coma recovery times in both species, whereas rapid cold hardening did not have a significant effect. Microarray analysis revealed several genes showing expression changes during different stages of cold response. Amongst the 219 genes studied, two genes showed rather consistent expression changes: hsr-omega, which was up-regulated in both study species during cold acclimatization, and Eip71CD, which was down-regulated in nearly all of the cold treatments. In addition, 29 genes showed expression changes that were more treatment- and/or species specific. Overall, different stages of cold response elicited changes mainly in genes involved in heat shock response, circadian rhythm and metabolism. © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society. Source

Paul N.R.,University of Manchester | Paul N.R.,CRUK Beatson Institute | Jacquemet G.,University of Manchester | Jacquemet G.,Turku Center for Biotechnology | Caswell P.T.,University of Manchester
Current Biology

Integrins are a family of heterodimeric receptors that bind to components of the extracellular matrix and influence cellular processes as varied as proliferation and migration. These effects are achieved by tight spatiotemporal control over intracellular signalling pathways, including those that mediate cytoskeletal reorganisation. The ability of integrins to bind to ligands is governed by integrin conformation, or activity, and this is widely acknowledged to be an important route to the regulation of integrin function. Over the last 15 years, however, the pathways that regulate endocytosis and recycling of integrins have emerged as major players in controlling integrin action, and studying integrin trafficking has revealed fresh insight into the function of this fascinating class of extracellular matrix receptors, in particular in the context of cell migration and invasion. Here, we review our current understanding of the contribution of integrin trafficking to cell motility. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Hartiala P.,University of Turku | Hytonen J.,University of Turku | Yrjanainen H.,University of Turku | Honkinen M.,University of Turku | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Immunology

Lyme borreliosis is a tick-borne bacterial infection that in many cases is limited to the skin. However, in some patients the bacterium evades the immune response and disseminates into various organs. Dendritic cells (DCs) are among the first cells to meet invading pathogens in the skin. We have previously shown that CD38, an ectoenzyme involved in the migration of DCs and generally upregulated by microbial stimuli, is not upregulated in Borrelia garinii-stimulated DCs. In this paper, we characterize the cellular events that lead to the absence of CD38 on the DC surface after B. garinii stimulation and investigate the consequences of absent CD38 expression for the migration of DCs in vitro and in vivo. The data show that 1) effective signaling via p38 MAPK (and STAT1 and NF-κB) is needed for CD38 expression and 2) TLR2 stimulation, as opposed to TLR4 stimulation, does not induce IFN-β autocrine loop-dependent expression of CD38 and secretion of IL-12. Further, we show that 3) B. garinii-stimulated DCs do not migrate effectively toward CCL19 and CCL21 and 4) after B. garinii infection of mice, the number of DCs migrating from the infection site to draining lymph nodes is only half that induced by Escherichia coli infection. Our results provide evidence for the first time that different TLR use results in different CD38 expression, which correlates with the migratory potential of DCs. Copyright © 2010 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc. Source

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