Türkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortaklığı was founded in 1954 by Law No. 6327 with the responsibility of being involved in hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, production, refinery and marketing activities as Turkey's national company.Being an important actor of the national economy, TPAO achieved many “firsts” of the Turkish oil industry in the past. The Company, its history reaching back over a half century, has given rise to seventeen major companies, including Petkim, Tüpraş and POAŞ to Turkey.Until 1983, as an integrated oil company, it was engaged in all the activity fields of oil industry from exploration to production, refinery, marketing and transportation. Today, TPAO is a national oil company involved in merely upstream sector. Wikipedia.
Ghienne J.-F.,University of Strasbourg |
Monod O.,128 rue du Parc |
Kozlu H.,Turkish Petroleum Corporation |
Dean W.T.,National Museum of Wales
Earth-Science Reviews | Year: 2010
In southern Turkey (Taurus Chain or Taurides) and southeastern Turkey (Border Folds of the Arabian Plate), nearly complete Cambrian to Ordovician successions are preserved. Four major sedimentary sequences are defined according to the main transgressive events and the subsequent shelf progradations. These sequences allow us to link the Turkish mostly distal Lower Palaeozoic detritals to the more proximal Arabian formations in spite of contrasting facies. The Lower Palaeozoic development is outlined through four successive steps defined in southern Turkey: (1) initiation of a cratonic platform regime (Terreneuvian, i.e. earliest Cambrian; Depositional Sequence 1), with fluviatile conglomerates and red-bed sediments associated with volcanics; (2) development of a stable marine platform (late Terreneuvian? to Early Ordovician; Depositional Sequences 2 and 3), including widespread but diachronous "middle Cambrian" Carbonates and subsequent storm-dominated, detritals; (3) tectonic instability (Middle Ordovician) leading to a new palaeogeography on the Gondwana platform with the differentiation of a sag basin (Bedinan-Qasim depocenter; lower part of Depositional Sequence 4); and (4) glaciation (latest Ordovician; upper part of Depositional Sequence 4) identified by glaciomarine deposits forming the Hirnantian glacial record.This thick (>2000 m) detrital succession records a first-order, long-term, subsidence-driven Cambrian to Ordovician transgressive trend, and includes second-order sequences reflecting interactions between global eustasy and tectonic instability. On a larger scale, the identification of recurrent sequence stratigraphic features with similar trends in the Cambrian-Ordovician successions on the Arabian platform, implies that a former location of the Taurus domain cannot be situated in the (present day) Eastern Mediterranean area, but should lie directly north of the Arabian platform. This location places southern Turkey at the junction between the North African segment of the Gondwana siliciclastic shelf to the West (present-day coordinates), and the Eastern Arabian segment, in good agreement with mixed faunal signatures from both areas. Primary control of the tectonostratigraphic development of southern Turkey during the Lower Palaeozoic may be a forced evolution from arc/platform to rift/drift transitions ("cordilleran" model) that has migrated progressively eastwards from the Avalonian domain along the northern Gondwana margin to the Arabian domain, throughout the Lower Palaeozoic. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Bati Z.,Turkish Petroleum Corporation
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Year: 2015
The South Caspian Basin is a deep Cenozoic basin located in eastern Paratethys along the northern margin of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone. The basin, with its proven oil and gas reserves, has been the subject of numerous biostratigraphic studies, but most of these studies have concentrated on the Pliocene reservoir rocks. Precise chronological correlations between Paratethyan sedimentary successions and Mediterranean stages have not yet been achieved, although detailed local foraminiferal and non-foraminiferal biostratigraphic studies allow chronostratigraphic division and accurate regional correlations. As a pioneering work, this paper provides a detailed dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy of the upper Eocene and lower Oligocene deposits in the South Caspian Basin. A total of 127 dinoflagellate cyst taxa have been studied for the first time from the Eocene Koun Formation and the Oligocene part of the Maykop Formation exposed in the Kirmizitepe Section, Azerbaijan. Three dinoflagellate cyst biozones known from classic areas in central Italy are recognizable in the South Caspian Basin. One (Aal zone) is uppermost Eocene and two (Gse and Adi zones) are lower Oligocene. Thus, although some dinoflagellate cyst species from the studied section have stratigraphic ranges different from those of mid and higher latitudes, others provide correlations with previously defined biozones and dinoflagellate cyst events in the Tethyan realm and northwestern Europe. Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages indicate shallow marine depositional conditions for the latest Eocene. Deeper conditions prevailed during the earliest part of the early Oligocene, succeeded by a pronounced shallowing later in the early Oligocene. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Milliken K.L.,University of Texas at Austin |
Ergene S.M.,Turkish Petroleum Corporation |
Ergene S.M.,Middle East Technical University |
Ozkan A.,Royal Dutch Shell
Sedimentary Geology | Year: 2016
Lithologic heterogeneity of the Eagle Ford Formation in South Texas arises from mixing of extrabasinal grains of siliciclastic composition with intrabasinal grain assemblages composed dominantly of marine carbonate with a lesser component of biosiliceous debris. Detrital quartz in particular is derived from both extrabasinal and intrabasinal sources, posing a challenge for the use of bulk compositional data for mudrock classification. Extrabasinal detrital quartz supplied along a major axis of siliciclastic influx, the Woodbine depositional system of East Texas, is reduced to a minor part of the grain assemblage in South Texas. Petrographic evidence and point-count results indicate that around 85 percent of total quartz in these rocks, equal to about 12.6 volume percent, is authigenic. Thus, significant quantities of authigenic silica are not restricted to siliceous mudrocks, but can be found in carbonate-rich mudrocks as well. Formerly opaline skeletons of radiolaria, the dominant source of silica for authigenic quartz precipitation, are only poorly preserved by replacements including calcite, dolomite, pyrite, and quartz. Dissolved silica released by dissolution of radiolarians, and perhaps also by volcanic glass dissolution is re-precipitated in a variety of forms, including matrix-dispersed microquartz cement, fillings within primary intragranular pores, and grain replacement of both calcareous and siliceous allochems. The mass balance of dissolved silica mobilized from radiolarians and other reactive silicates and the precipitation of authigenic quartz is uncertain because the initial volumes of now-dissolved detrital material versus the final volume of authigenic material (quartz and other authigenic silicates) cannot be determined with accuracy. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Ozkan R.,Turkish Petroleum Corporation |
Vachard D.,CNRS Evolution, Ecology, and Paleonthology Laboratory
Revue de Micropaleontologie | Year: 2015
A complete Devonian sequence is well exposed in the eastern Taurides, forming more than 1000 m-thick succession of carbonate and siliciclastic sediments. The carbonate succession, stratigraphically ranging from Middle Devonian to early Late Devonian and mostly comprising limestones, dolomitic limestones and reefal limestones, contains abundant and diverse assemblages of foraminifers, corals, stromatoporoids, calcareous algae, bivalves, brachiopods, ostracods, and conodonts. The limestone samples collected from a more closely sampled stratigraphic section have been investigated for their foraminiferal content. The micropalaeontological analyses carried out on these samples have revealed the presence of an early Frasnian foraminiferal assemblage including predominantly unilocular parathuramminid species and multilocular forms of the genera Nanicella, Paratikhinella and Semitextularia? and further indicated the presence of a new genus and a new species Halevikia deveciae n. gen. n. sp. which appears as an important phylogenetic and stratigraphic transitional taxon between the families Baituganellidae n. fam. and Tournayellinidae, the phylogenetic potentiality of which during the Late Devonian is currently probably underestimated. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS.
Sancay R.H.,Turkish Petroleum Corporation
Palynology | Year: 2014
Fossil fungal spores, endemic Paratethyan dinoflagellate cysts, organic-walled algal cysts, spores and pollen are very common in the onshore and offshore Neogene sediments of the Black Sea, Turkey. Amongst these assemblages, the fungal spore form-genus Mediaverrunites Nandi and Sinha 2007, emend. nov., described from Neogene strata from tropical to temperate paleoclimates, commonly occurs in Upper Miocene sediments. The presence of stratigraphically important dinoflagellate cyst and pollen taxa confirms the stratigraphic importance of this genus in the Upper Miocene of the Black Sea. Two new fungal spore species, Mediaverrunites batii sp. nov. and Mediaverrunites pontidiensis sp. nov., are described from Upper Miocene sediments of the Black Sea. © 2013 © 2013 AASP - The Palynological Society.
Kaypak B.,Ankara University |
Gokkaya G.,Turkish Petroleum Corporation
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research | Year: 2012
The Denizli basin and its surroundings are one of the regions that have high seismic activity and rich geothermal fields in western Anatolia. In the first half of year 2000, an increasing seismic activity was observed around the Denizli basin without a large mainshock occurrence. A temporary seismic network consisting of 28 stations were deployed to observe the seismic activity in the region by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey-Marmara Research Center-Earth and Marine Science Institute (TÜBİTAK-MAM-EMSI). In this study, one- and three-dimensional V P and V P/V S structure of the Denizli basin have been determined by using the travel times of the 635 recorded earthquake data. Firstly one-dimensional inversion schema was performed to stabilize initial velocity model and to have more reliable hypocentral locations. Then an iterative and simultaneous three-dimensional inversion procedure was carried out to obtain 3-D high-resolution seismic velocity models. Furthermore to assess the solution quality of our inversion, we conducted a series of resolution tests. We concluded high-resolution 3-D V P and V P/V S seismic velocity models for the upper 20km of the crust beneath the Denizli basin and surroundings and interpreted the results in the context of known geologic and tectonic units. The resulting 3-D V P models define the geometry of the basin, sediment thickness, and intrusive magmatic bodies as well as regions of anomalous velocity. The V P/V S models help to constrain the location and geometry of the faults, zones of weakness, and gas or fluid saturated formations with high pore pressure zones. All tomographic results show that there is a strong correlation between local seismicity and the high V P and V P/V S anomalies. Consequently, this relationship indicates that the reason of the high seismicity in the Denizli basin depends on activity of hydrothermal system as well as tectonic regime. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Atmaca E.,Gazi University |
Basar H.B.,Turkish Petroleum Corporation
Energy | Year: 2012
Energy is one of the most important parameters of the development of societies. Low cost, clean and secure energy supply is a common issue for all countries. Every country spends commercial and political effort to avoid not having sufficient energy and to ensure an uninterrupted energy supply. This study attempts to determine the suitability of existing power plants in Turkey and the plants that are being considered for establishment in the near future. The alternatives which are being considered are natural gas, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, and coal/lignite energy plants as well as nuclear energy plants. By using the multi-criteria decision making technique of Analytic Network Process (ANP), a multi-criteria evaluations of six different energy plants were performed with respect to the major criteria such as technology and sustainability, economical suitability, life quality and socio-economic impacts. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Ciftci N.B.,Turkish Petroleum Corporation |
Bozkurt E.,Middle East Technical University
Basin Research | Year: 2010
The structural evolution of the Miocene to Recent Gediz Graben is intimately related to the evolution of its southern margin. This margin is shaped by a time-transgressive, composite structure that possesses flat-ramp geometry with three separate dip domains: a low-angle shallow segment; a steeper middle segment; and a low-angle deeper segment. This geometry was probably produced by one of two mechanisms, which operated perpendicular to the general trend of the graben, resulting in gradual back-rotation followed by abandonment of the shallow segment as it was dissected by the high-angle normal fault(s). The geometry of the southern margin structure is not simple along-strike. It includes broad undulations and discrete fault segments, developed by large-scale fault growth processes through segment linkage. The along-strike growth of the southern margin-bounding structure is responsible for the composite character of the Gediz Graben and controls the observed stratigraphic variability. Two sub-basins aligned with the major segments of the southern graben margin structure have been investigated. The Salihli and Alaşehir sub-basins comprising 3000 m sedimentary thickness are separated by an intervening basement high, that is covered by a thin veneer of post-Miocene sediments. The two sub-basins, which evolved as isolated basins during most of the graben history, amalgamated during post-Miocene time to form the composite configuration of the graben. There is a general east to west trend of growth for the Gediz Graben. © 2009 The Authors. Basin Research © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers and International Association of Sedimentologists.
Baytok S.,Turkish Petroleum Corporation |
Pranter M.J.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Petroleum Geoscience | Year: 2013
The distribution and orientation of faults, fracture intensity and seismic-reflection characteristics of the Mesaverde Group (Williams Fork and Iles formations) at Mamm Creek Field vary stratigraphically, and with lithology and depositional setting. For the Mesaverde Group, the occurrence of faults and natural fractures is important as they provide conduits for gas migration, and enhance the permeability and productivity of the tight-gas sandstones. The Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group represents fluvial, alluvial-plain, coastalplain and shallow-marine depositional environments. Structural interpretations based on three-dimensional (3D) seismic-amplitude data, ant-track (algorithm that enhances seismic discontinuities) seismic attributes and curvature attributes are utilized jointly to understand the complex fault characteristics of the Williams Fork Formation. This study reveals that the lowermost lower Williams Fork Formation is characterized by NNW- and east-west-trending small-scale thrust and normal faults. Study suggests that the uppermost lower Williams Fork Formation, and the middle and upper Williams Fork formations, exhibit NNE- and east-west-trending arrays of fault splays that terminate upwards and do not appear to displace the upper Williams Fork Formation. In the uppermost Williams Fork Formation and Ohio Creek Member, NNE-trending discontinuities are displaced by east-west-trending events and the east-west-trending events dominate. Fracture analysis, based on borehole-image logs, together with ant-track and attenuation-related seismic attributes, illustrates the spatial variability of fracture intensity and lithological controls on fracture distribution. In general, higher fracture intensity occurs within the southern, southwestern and western portions of the field, and fracture intensity is greater within the fluvial sandstone deposits of the middle and upper Williams Fork formations. More than 90% of natural fractures occur in sandstones and siltstones. In situ stress analysis, based on induced-tensile fractures and borehole breakouts, indicates a NNW orientation of present-day maximum horizontal stress (SHmax), an approximate 20° rotation (in a clockwise direction) in the orientation of SHmax with depth and an abrupt stress shift below the Williams Fork Formation within the Rollins Sandstone Member. © 2013 EAGE/The Geological Society of London.
Gokce D.,Turkish Petroleum Corporation
Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences | Year: 2011
This study summarizes the design of a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) in Tüpraş Izmit Refinery Hydrocracker Unit Reactors. Hydrocracking process, in which heavy vacuum gasoil is converted into lighter and valuable products at high temperature and pressure is described briefly. Controller design description, identification and modeling studies are examined and the model variables are presented. WABT (Weighted Average Bed Temperature) equalization and conversion increase are simulated, results are discussed.