Ozgul F.,Turkish National Police Academy
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2014
Due to the interest by public audience and academic research, there has been a great interest in Terrorist Networks by the academicians, analysts and criminologists. Either to learn how to disrupt or to prevent their activities, structure of these networks are investigated. The final conclusion about their structure and topology came to the fact that they do not resemble each other, but there are categories of them. In this paper, we categorized these networks into six because of their ideologies and common practices. Topologies of these six categories are observed and importance of key players (leaders, financiers, propaganda units and armed units) are compared based on these categories. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.
Ozgul F.,Turkish National Police Academy |
Bowerman C.,University of Wunderland
Proceedings of 2014 IEEE International Conference on Behavioral, Economic, Socio-Cultural Computing, BESC 2014 | Year: 2014
In this paper, we categorized topology of terrorist networks into six because of their ideological, historical and practical similarities by showing them with real terrorist network examples. © 2014 IEEE.
Unal M.C.,Turkish National Police Academy
Terrorism and Political Violence | Year: 2014
The PKK, a violent group seeking secession in southeastern Turkey through the use of terror and guerilla methods, has evolved through different strategic and pragmatic phases in pursuing its goal. Ocalan, the incarcerated leader, classified the PKK's objectives into four deliberate strategic periods and commenced the final period of Strategic Lunge in March 2010 (for establishing de-facto autonomy). To compare these periods to PKK's real evolution, this article reviewed the entire process of the PKK (1973-2012) through analysis of resolutions from PKK congresses/conferences and the characteristics of PKK violence (e.g., target status, incident type/location, form, and purpose). This study argues that as opposed to Ocalan's assessment, PKK moves-particularly after 1994-are based on emergent (ex-post) pragmatic shifts rather than predetermined (ex-ante) strategic plans, as verified by analysis of the nature/form of PKK violence. It also argues that the PKK's pragmatic moves permeated even into its ideology and declared goal. Contrary to Ocalan's four-stage strategic periods, the PKK's initial manifesto indicates a three-stage Maoist strategy for reaching its goal. However, the PKK's military attempt to reach the third stage in 1991 failed due to conditions that were not sufficient for realization of the third stage of Maoist strategy. As a result, the PKK quit pursuing military victory after acknowledging its defeat in 1994; instead, since it still possessed the ability to initiate violence, it strategically employed (and ceased) violence to supplement its campaign of political compromise and negotiation. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Akgul A.,Turkish National Police Academy |
Gurer C.,Turkish National Police
Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy | Year: 2014
Policies to prevent the illegal sale and use of drugs are strongly affected by national and international institutions. Different models are possible to design drug policies in different settings. This article is focused on the impact of the European Union (EU) on the emergence of a drug policy institution in Turkey. Specifically, it looks at the accession process of the EU and how the supported projects of the EU have affected the development of Turkey's counter drug policies. The case study method is applied to examine the newly formed drug institution, Turkish Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, which is the main unit of analysis in this research. The objective of this research is to provide insight on the EU's impact on drug policy transfer in Turkey over time. The research shows that the EU has a significant impact on the establishing of the institution and the public policy-making in Turkey. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.
Buker H.,Turkish National Police Academy
Aggression and Violent Behavior | Year: 2011
Self-control is an important concept in the recent criminological theory with consistent empirical support as a predictor of criminality. Although the empirical studies consistently supported the self-control-criminality relation as proposed by the general theory of crime (GTC), there is a developing body of literature concerning the formation of self-control. Testing the propositions of the GTC on the formation of self-control, criminological theory literature as well as other disciplines provided several important insights regarding how self-control is generated. This paper systematically reviews the findings of the studies from several fields (n=44) and provides an overview of their findings. In conclusion, this review process indicated that the formation of self-control is far more complex than the propositions of the GTC. In addition to the parental socialization processes as discussed by the GTC, several studies indicated that there are other factors, such as social context, education process, biological and neurological factors, affecting the generation of self-control. Other disciplines, along with criminology, contributed significantly to direct future research on this concept and provided important guidelines for public policy makers as discussed within this study. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.