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Among vegetable oils, hazelnut oil (H), because of its high oleic acid content, is an important biofuel resource for use in diesel engines. Microemulsion, which is a viscosity reduction method, is a more practical and less time-consuming method as compared to transesterification, and can be used to blend diesel (D), vegetable oils and higher alcohols such as n-butanol (nB) and 1-pentanol (Pn), which have a promising future as biofuels for diesel engines, which, in return, can increase the biofuel utilization rate in diesel engines. While alcohols are known to have low cetane numbers, it is necessary to keep the cetane number of microemulsion based fuels high enough. Thus, in this work, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) cetane improver was added at 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentration to the microemulsions of D (70 vol.%)-H (20 vol.%)-nB (10 vol.%) (DnBH) or Pn (10 vol.%) (DPnH) and the effects of the cetane improver on fuel properties and engine characteristics were investigated in detail. Addition of EHN to DnBH and DPnH microemulsions increased the cetane number by about 13.12% and 12.26%, respectively while it did not have any significant effect on density, kinematic viscosity, cloud point, cold filter plugging point (CFPP) or flash point. The engine tests were performed on a direct-injection, turbocharged diesel engine (TDI) at five engine loads (0%, 30%, 60%, 90% and 100%) at 2200 rpm constant engine speed. As compared to DnBH and DPnH microemulsions, the addition of EHN cetane improver notably decreased brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and increased carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, but had the opposite effects on hydrocarbon (HC) emissions for both microemulsions. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Higher alcohols are important alternative fuel resources for use in internal combustion engines promising positive economical and environmental outcomes. Moreover, higher alcohols are advantageous over lower alcohols due to their better blending capabilities, hydrophobic properties, higher cetane numbers and calorific value. The aim of this work is to investigate and compare the basic fuel properties of the ternary blends of diesel (D), waste oil methyl ester (biodiesel (B)) and the higher alcohols of propanol (Pro), n-butanol (nB) and 1-pentanol (Pn), and their effects on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine. As test fuels four different blends were prepared by volume: 50%D-50%B (D50B50), 40%D-40%B-20%Pro (D40B40Pro20), 20%nB (D40B40nB20) and 20%Pn (D40B40Pn20). Addition of higher alcohols to diesel-biodiesel blend improved especially the cloud point (CP) and cold filter plugging point (CFPP), while slightly decreased density, lower heating value, kinematic viscosity, cetane number and flash point. In order to determine engine performance and exhaust emissions, tests were performed at four engine loads (1, 3, 6, 9 kW) with a constant engine speed (1800 rpm). Based on the engine performance and exhaust emissions, D40B40Pro20 had higher brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) values than the ternary blends of D40B40nB20 and D40B40Pn20 at all engine loads. The exhaust gas temperatures (EGT) of D40B40Pro20, D40B40nB20 and D40B40Pn20 were higher than that of the diesel-biodiesel blend. All blends of the higher alcohols reduced oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions as 1-pentanol, n-butanol and propanol were the most to least effective alcohols respectively. However, carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were increased with the addition of the alcohols to the blends. When the effects of higher alcohols on hydrocarbon (HC) emissions are compared in terms of emission reduction, the order from best to worst was as follows: D40B40Pn20, D40B40nB20. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Aytav E.,Turkish Land Forces NCO Vocational College | Kocar G.,Ege University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

Energy is an indispensable factor of today's developed and developing societies. However, supplying most of the energy need through nonrenewable fossil fuels has come to the threatening position for both the energy demand and the sustainable development in the future. For this reason, most of the developed countries have started to reduce the foreign dependency in order to stabilize their economies and head towards more environmental and renewable resources. Particularly, economic fluctuation and environmental damages depending on the oil need which increases day by day raise the importance of biofuels. Biodiesel developed as an alternative of diesel fuel has reached up to 17.6 billion liters of production amounts over the last 20 years. It is predicted that this increase would be much more rapid in the next decade and reach up to 42 billion liters. EU, Argentina, Brazil, Malaysia and the USA supply the 93% of the biodiesel production of the world. Turkey, which is 78% foreign-dependent in terms of energy and imports its 93% of oil need, supported biodiesel production in 2000s in order to close its current deficit and prevent oil's environmental damages. However, the desired aims could not be achieved and many biodiesel facilities were shut down. Along with the amendments in the legislation of petroleum products by the end of 2011, it is aimed that the biodiesel sector would be boosted through arousing interest in biodiesel again. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Atmanli A.,Turkish Land Forces NCO Vocational College | Ileri E.,Gulhane Military Academy | Yilmaz N.,New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology
Energy | Year: 2016

The rule of thumb in literature is that 20% of biodiesel is the most acceptable blend ratio in alternative fuel blends. This work focuses on in-depth mathematical optimization analyses of ternary blends of diesel-butanol-vegetable oil (cotton oil), based on engine operating parameters using RSM (response surface methodology). It is critical to achieve the maximum power and torque for customers while keeping the emissions low enough due to government regulations and certifications. Thus, three optimization studies were conducted at 2200 rpm, which corresponds to the maximum brake torque, and engine emissions were fixed at a maximum possible value based on emission standards, for all three studies. In order to understand the impact of other engine parameters on the blend ratio, as well, various combinations of BTE (brake thermal efficiency), maximum brake power, maximum brake torque, BSFC (brake specific fuel consumption) and BMEP (brake mean effective pressure) were fixed, which correspond to Opt-(optimization 1) (BTE and exhaust emissions), optimization 2 (BTE, brake power and exhaust emissions), and optimization 3 (BTE, brake power, brake torque, BSFC, BMEP and exhaust emissions). Optimization studies used experimentally determined emissions and performance data of a diesel engine based on 7 different concentrations of diesel-butanol-cotton oil blends. Optimum values of the blends corresponding to the optimization studies were mathematically determined as Opt-(optimization 1) (61.7 vol.% diesel, 34.75 vol.% butanol, 3.55 vol.% cotton oil), Opt-(optimization 2) (64.5 vol.% diesel, 28.7 vol.% butanol, 6.8 vol.% cotton oil), and Opt-(optimization 3) (65.5 vol.% diesel, 23.1 vol.% butanol, 11.4 vol.% cotton oil). When compared to diesel, BSFCs of Opt-1, Opt-and Opt-blends at 2200 rpm increased 41.57, 33.87 and 24.53%, respectively. In terms of basic exhaust gas emissions, optimum fuel blends decreased NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (carbon monoxide) and HC (hydrocarbon) emissions as compared to diesel. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Ileri E.,Turkish Land Forces NCO Vocational College | Kocar G.,Ege University
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2013

An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the effect of antioxidants on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with B20 (20 vol.% canola oil methyl ester and 80 vol.% diesel fuel blend). The four synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN), were tested on a Land Rover turbocharged direct injection (TDI) 110 type diesel engine with water cooled, 4-cycl and 4-cylinder. The addition of antioxidants to B20 did not cause any negative effect on basic fuel properties of B20. According to engine performance test results, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of B20 with antioxidants decreased compared to those of B20 without antioxidants. A 1000 ppm concentration of TBHQ was optimal as BSFC values were considerably reduced (10.19%) in the whole engine speeds when compared to B20. EHN antioxidant with B20 presented the best mean oxides of nitrogen (NOx) with a reduction of 4.63%. However, formation of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions has been increased with addition of each of the antioxidants to B20. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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