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Atmanli A.,Turkish Land Forces NCO Vocational College | Ileri E.,Turkish Land Forces NCO Vocational College | Yuksel B.,Balikesir University
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2014

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of using n-butanol in vegetable oil-diesel fuel blends on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a direct injection diesel engine operating at full load (100% throttle conditions) with different engine speeds without any engine modification. Neat canola-hazelnut-cottonseed oil (CHC) and neat sunflower-corn-soybean oil (SCS) blends were prepared as equal vol.% by splash blending method. Diesel fuel (70 vol.%) and n-butanol (10 vol.%) are added into CHC and SCS blends (denoted as DCHCnB and DSCSnB, respectively), simultaneously. Basic fuel properties of DCHCnB and DSCSnB are similar to those of diesel fuel. According to engine performance and exhaust emission test results of DCHCnB and DSCSnB, average values of brake torque (-6.08% and -6.67%), brake power (-4.12% and -4.59%), brake thermal efficiency (BTE) (-10.80% and -11.66%), exhaust gas temperature (-15.11% and -14.99%), carbon dioxide (CO2) (-1.12% and -2.30%) and hydrocarbon (HC) (-36.71% and -32.28%) are lower, while brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) (18.43% and 19.58%), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) (27.27% and 30.36%) and carbon monoxide (CO) (41.57% and 26.89%) are higher than those of diesel fuel. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Atmanli A.,Turkish Land Forces NCO Vocational College | Yuksel B.,Balikesir University | Ileri E.,Turkish Land Forces NCO Vocational College
Fuel | Year: 2013

This study focused on the effect of temperature and component concentration on phase stability of diesel-cotton oil-n-butanol ternary blends. Titration method was performed for plotting phase diagrams at different temperatures (-10, -5, 0, 5 and room temperature). Ternary blend of 70% diesel fuel, 20% cotton oil, 10% n-butanol by volume (DCtOnB), which was prepared by the splash-blending method, obtained from titration values at -10°C temperature was selected for the engine performance and exhaust emission tests. Engine performance test results of DCtOnB showed that average values of brake torque (2.6%), brake power (1.6%), brake thermal efficiency (BTE) (31.2%), brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (2.3%) and exhaust gas temperature (3.6%) are lower, while brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) (34.1%) is higher than those of diesel fuel. As for the emissions of the DCtOnB, it was found that carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reduced significantly at low engine speeds, whereas oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions increased, when compared to those of diesel fuel. Taking these facts into account, a blend of 70% diesel fuel, 20% cotton oil and 10% n-butanol was found the most suitable ratio for low temperature behavior due to the satisfactory fuel properties and reduced exhaust emissions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ileri E.,Turkish Land Forces NCO Vocational College | Karaoglan A.D.,Balikesir University | Atmanli A.,Turkish Land Forces NCO Vocational College
Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fuel injection timing and engine speed on engine performance and exhaust emission parameters using a diesel engine running on canola oil methyl ester (COME). COME was produced by means of the transesterification method and tested at full load with various engine speeds by changing fuel injection timing (12, 15, and 18 °CA) in a turbocharged direct injection (TDI) diesel engine. The experiments were designed using response surface methodology (RSM), which is one of the well-known design of experiment technique for predicting the responses engine performance and exhaust emission parameters from a second order polynomial equation obtained by modeling the relation between fuel injection timing (t) and engine speed (n) parameters. By using the second order full quadratic RSM models obtained from experimental results, responses brake power, brake torque, brake mean effective pressure, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature, oxygen (O2), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and light absorption coefficient (K) affected from factors t and n were able to be predicted by 95% confidence interval. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.


Atmanli A.,Turkish Land Forces NCO Vocational College | Yuksel B.,Balikesir University | Ileri E.,Turkish Land Forces NCO Vocational College | Deniz Karaoglan A.,Balikesir University
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2015

Many studies declare that 20% biodiesel is the optimum concentration for biodiesel-diesel fuel blends to improve performance. The present work focuses on finding diesel fuel, n-butanol, and cotton oil optimum blend ratios for diesel engine applications by using the response surface method (RSM). Experimental test fuels were prepared by choosing 7 different concentrations, where phase decomposition did not occur in the phase diagram of -10 °C. Experiments were carried out at full load conditions and the constant speed (2200 rpm) of maximum brake torque to determine engine performance and emission parameters. According to the test results of the engine, optimization was done by using RSM considering engine performance and exhaust emissions parameters, to identify the rates of concentrations of components in the optimum blend of three. Confirmation tests were employed to compare the output values of concentrations that were identified by optimization. The real experiment results and the R2 actual values that show the relation between the outputs from the optimizations and real experiments were determined in high accordance. The optimum component concentration was determined as 65.5 vol.% diesel, 23.1 vol.% n-butanol and 11.4 vol.% cotton oil (DnBC). According to engine performance tests brake torque, brake power, BTE and BMEP of DnBC decreased while BSFC increased compared to those of diesel fuel. NOx, CO and HC emissions of DnBC drastically decreased as 11.33%, 45.17% and 81.45%, respectively. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Among vegetable oils, hazelnut oil (H), because of its high oleic acid content, is an important biofuel resource for use in diesel engines. Microemulsion, which is a viscosity reduction method, is a more practical and less time-consuming method as compared to transesterification, and can be used to blend diesel (D), vegetable oils and higher alcohols such as n-butanol (nB) and 1-pentanol (Pn), which have a promising future as biofuels for diesel engines, which, in return, can increase the biofuel utilization rate in diesel engines. While alcohols are known to have low cetane numbers, it is necessary to keep the cetane number of microemulsion based fuels high enough. Thus, in this work, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) cetane improver was added at 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentration to the microemulsions of D (70 vol.%)-H (20 vol.%)-nB (10 vol.%) (DnBH) or Pn (10 vol.%) (DPnH) and the effects of the cetane improver on fuel properties and engine characteristics were investigated in detail. Addition of EHN to DnBH and DPnH microemulsions increased the cetane number by about 13.12% and 12.26%, respectively while it did not have any significant effect on density, kinematic viscosity, cloud point, cold filter plugging point (CFPP) or flash point. The engine tests were performed on a direct-injection, turbocharged diesel engine (TDI) at five engine loads (0%, 30%, 60%, 90% and 100%) at 2200 rpm constant engine speed. As compared to DnBH and DPnH microemulsions, the addition of EHN cetane improver notably decreased brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and increased carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, but had the opposite effects on hydrocarbon (HC) emissions for both microemulsions. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Higher alcohols are important alternative fuel resources for use in internal combustion engines promising positive economical and environmental outcomes. Moreover, higher alcohols are advantageous over lower alcohols due to their better blending capabilities, hydrophobic properties, higher cetane numbers and calorific value. The aim of this work is to investigate and compare the basic fuel properties of the ternary blends of diesel (D), waste oil methyl ester (biodiesel (B)) and the higher alcohols of propanol (Pro), n-butanol (nB) and 1-pentanol (Pn), and their effects on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine. As test fuels four different blends were prepared by volume: 50%D-50%B (D50B50), 40%D-40%B-20%Pro (D40B40Pro20), 20%nB (D40B40nB20) and 20%Pn (D40B40Pn20). Addition of higher alcohols to diesel-biodiesel blend improved especially the cloud point (CP) and cold filter plugging point (CFPP), while slightly decreased density, lower heating value, kinematic viscosity, cetane number and flash point. In order to determine engine performance and exhaust emissions, tests were performed at four engine loads (1, 3, 6, 9 kW) with a constant engine speed (1800 rpm). Based on the engine performance and exhaust emissions, D40B40Pro20 had higher brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) values than the ternary blends of D40B40nB20 and D40B40Pn20 at all engine loads. The exhaust gas temperatures (EGT) of D40B40Pro20, D40B40nB20 and D40B40Pn20 were higher than that of the diesel-biodiesel blend. All blends of the higher alcohols reduced oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions as 1-pentanol, n-butanol and propanol were the most to least effective alcohols respectively. However, carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were increased with the addition of the alcohols to the blends. When the effects of higher alcohols on hydrocarbon (HC) emissions are compared in terms of emission reduction, the order from best to worst was as follows: D40B40Pn20, D40B40nB20. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Atmanli A.,Turkish Land Forces NCO Vocational College | Ileri E.,Gulhane Military Academy | Yilmaz N.,New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology
Energy | Year: 2016

The rule of thumb in literature is that 20% of biodiesel is the most acceptable blend ratio in alternative fuel blends. This work focuses on in-depth mathematical optimization analyses of ternary blends of diesel-butanol-vegetable oil (cotton oil), based on engine operating parameters using RSM (response surface methodology). It is critical to achieve the maximum power and torque for customers while keeping the emissions low enough due to government regulations and certifications. Thus, three optimization studies were conducted at 2200 rpm, which corresponds to the maximum brake torque, and engine emissions were fixed at a maximum possible value based on emission standards, for all three studies. In order to understand the impact of other engine parameters on the blend ratio, as well, various combinations of BTE (brake thermal efficiency), maximum brake power, maximum brake torque, BSFC (brake specific fuel consumption) and BMEP (brake mean effective pressure) were fixed, which correspond to Opt-(optimization 1) (BTE and exhaust emissions), optimization 2 (BTE, brake power and exhaust emissions), and optimization 3 (BTE, brake power, brake torque, BSFC, BMEP and exhaust emissions). Optimization studies used experimentally determined emissions and performance data of a diesel engine based on 7 different concentrations of diesel-butanol-cotton oil blends. Optimum values of the blends corresponding to the optimization studies were mathematically determined as Opt-(optimization 1) (61.7 vol.% diesel, 34.75 vol.% butanol, 3.55 vol.% cotton oil), Opt-(optimization 2) (64.5 vol.% diesel, 28.7 vol.% butanol, 6.8 vol.% cotton oil), and Opt-(optimization 3) (65.5 vol.% diesel, 23.1 vol.% butanol, 11.4 vol.% cotton oil). When compared to diesel, BSFCs of Opt-1, Opt-and Opt-blends at 2200 rpm increased 41.57, 33.87 and 24.53%, respectively. In terms of basic exhaust gas emissions, optimum fuel blends decreased NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (carbon monoxide) and HC (hydrocarbon) emissions as compared to diesel. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Aytav E.,Turkish Land Forces NCO Vocational College | Kocar G.,Ege University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

Energy is an indispensable factor of today's developed and developing societies. However, supplying most of the energy need through nonrenewable fossil fuels has come to the threatening position for both the energy demand and the sustainable development in the future. For this reason, most of the developed countries have started to reduce the foreign dependency in order to stabilize their economies and head towards more environmental and renewable resources. Particularly, economic fluctuation and environmental damages depending on the oil need which increases day by day raise the importance of biofuels. Biodiesel developed as an alternative of diesel fuel has reached up to 17.6 billion liters of production amounts over the last 20 years. It is predicted that this increase would be much more rapid in the next decade and reach up to 42 billion liters. EU, Argentina, Brazil, Malaysia and the USA supply the 93% of the biodiesel production of the world. Turkey, which is 78% foreign-dependent in terms of energy and imports its 93% of oil need, supported biodiesel production in 2000s in order to close its current deficit and prevent oil's environmental damages. However, the desired aims could not be achieved and many biodiesel facilities were shut down. Along with the amendments in the legislation of petroleum products by the end of 2011, it is aimed that the biodiesel sector would be boosted through arousing interest in biodiesel again. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Ileri E.,Turkish Land Forces NCO Vocational College | Kocar G.,Ege University
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2013

An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the effect of antioxidants on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with B20 (20 vol.% canola oil methyl ester and 80 vol.% diesel fuel blend). The four synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN), were tested on a Land Rover turbocharged direct injection (TDI) 110 type diesel engine with water cooled, 4-cycl and 4-cylinder. The addition of antioxidants to B20 did not cause any negative effect on basic fuel properties of B20. According to engine performance test results, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of B20 with antioxidants decreased compared to those of B20 without antioxidants. A 1000 ppm concentration of TBHQ was optimal as BSFC values were considerably reduced (10.19%) in the whole engine speeds when compared to B20. EHN antioxidant with B20 presented the best mean oxides of nitrogen (NOx) with a reduction of 4.63%. However, formation of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions has been increased with addition of each of the antioxidants to B20. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ileri E.,Turkish Land Forces NCO Vocational College | Kocar G.,Ege University
Fuel | Year: 2014

In this study, the effect of the antioxidant additives on the oxidation stability of biodiesel and the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine has been studied. Biodiesel used in this study was produced via transesterification process from canola oil, and was blended with diesel fuel 20% by volume (B20). Antioxidant additives butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) were individually dissolved at concentrations of 0, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm by weight in B20 fuel blend for experiments. The test results of oxidation stability showed that the effectiveness of the antioxidants was in the order of TBHQ > BHA > BHT > EHN. According to exhaust emissions test results, antioxidant additives had quite effects on oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions of diesel engine running on biodiesel. A 1000 ppm concentration of EHN additive was optimal as NO x levels were substantially reduced in the whole engine speed in comparison with B20 fuel. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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