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Dortbudak M.F.,Turkish Air War College Hava Harp Akademisi
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

Terrorism is not a new phenomenon to the world, yet it remains difficult to define and counter. Countering terrorism requires several measures that must be taken simultaneously; however, counterterrorism strategies of many countries mostly depend on military measures. In the aftermath of the 2001 terrorist attack on the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, the United States (U.S.) has started and led the campaign of Global War on Terrorism. They have invaded Afghanistan and Iraq and have encountered insurgencies run by terrorist organizations, such as al-Qaeda and its affiliates. The U.S. made the utilization of Air and Space Power very intensively during these operations. In order to implement operations; Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) assets were used to collect the necessary information. Before the successful insertion of a small number of U.S. Special Operation Force (SOF) teams into Afghanistan, the U.S. Air Force attacked al-Qaeda and Taliban™s targets such as infrastructure, airfields, ground forces, command-control facilities etc. As soon as the U.S. troops got on the ground and started to marshal to Kabul, the Air Force supported them by attacking jointly determined targets. The Air Force continued to carry out the missions and played a significant role to achieve the objective of operation during all the time. This is not the only example of utilization of Air and Space Power in counterterrorism and counterinsurgency operations. All around the world, many countries have also made the utilization of Air Power in different missions ranging from ISR to attacking. Thinking that terrorism has a psychological dimension and losing a pilot during operations may result in decreasing the population support to operations, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) started to be used by practitioners and took priority over other assets. Although UAVs have been on the theatre for a long time used for ISR mission in conventional conflicts, with the advent of drones, UAVs have also started to be used for attack missions in counterterrorism operations. In this study, it is aimed to determine whether UAVs are appropriate assets that can be used in counterterrorism operations. The study starts by examining the term terrorism and counterterrorism and discusses the role of the Air and Space Power in counterterrorism operations. After proposing that UAVs are appropriate assets for counterterrorism operations, it continues by explaining types and common usage concepts of UAVs. The advantages and disadvantages of UAVs are put forward from the counterterrorism operations™ perspectives. It finally examines the utilization of UAVs in counterterrorism operations. In this context, as much as obtained from open sources, countries™ roadmaps, usage concepts, experience, and current structure are examined to determine whether UAVs are appropriate assets in counterterrorism operations. When the advantages of UAVs and the disadvantages of manned systems are analyzed, other findings of our survey will show us that UAVs will be increasingly used in counterterrorism operations. © COPYRIGHT SPIE. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only. Source


Hazinedar A.,Turkish Air War College Hava Harp Akademisi
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

Since air vehicles took place in the theater of operations, they have become the indispensable elements and the strongest attack power of armed forces. In the following period, with technological development, supersonic aircrafts took place in the operation area and this increased effectiveness of air vehicles much more. Air forces have used these aircrafts during important missions like strategic attack and air defense operations. On the other hand, decision makers understood that it was not feasible to intercept fighter aircrafts by executing combat air patrol flight missions. Since there is not enough reaction time to intercept the high speed aircrafts, ground stationed Surface to Air Missiles (SAM) system requirement has emerged. Therefore, SAM systems took place in the operation scene as well. Due to the fact that SAM systems emerged against the attack power, the attack aircrafts are to keep away from the fire of the ground stationed SAM systems. Hence, the requirement of Suppression Enemy Air Defense (SEAD) arose. SEAD elements take under suppression the radar of the SAM systems. In this way, attack aircrafts are able to attack without the risk of SAM systems. The purpose of this study is to find new methods or concepts in order to protect friendly attack aircrafts against ground based surface to air missiles’ fires. Modernization of SAM systems and new generation SAM system producing activities have proceeded with positive acceleration. So, current SEAD elements and concepts are not able to cover the requirements due to the increased SAM system ranges. According to the concepts, SEAD weapons†ranges must be longer than the SAM weapons’ ranges to protect friendly aircrafts. In this study, new concept was offered to overcome the deficiencies of current SEAD concept. The elements of new concepts were put forward. Classic SEAD concept and new generation concepts were assessed by using SWOT analysis technique. As a result, this study has revealed that, air forces’ effectiveness can be enhanced by using new generation SEAD concepts against enemy SAM systems. © COPYRIGHT SPIE. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only. Source


Durak H.,Turkish Air War College Hava Harp Akademisi
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

Lately, the effect-based approach has gained importance in executing air operations. Thus, it makes more successful in obtaining the desired results by breaking the enemy’s determination in a short time. Air force is the first option to be chosen in order to defuse the strategic targets. However, the problems such as the defense of targets and country, radars, range..etc. becoming serious problems. At this level ballistic missiles emerge as a strategic weapon. Ultimate emerging technologies guided by the INS and GPS can also be embedded with multiple warheads and reinforced with conventional explosive, ballistic missiles are weapons that can destroy targets with precision. They have the advantage of high speed, being easily launched from every platform and not being easily detected by air defense systems contrary to other air platforms. While these are the advantages, there are also disadvantages of the ballistic missiles. The high cost, unavailability of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, and its limited effect while using conventional explosives against destroying the fortified targets are the disadvantages. The features mentioned above should be considered as limitation to the impact of the ballistic missiles. The aim is to impose the requests on enemies without starting a war with all components and to ensure better implementation of the operation functions during the air operations. In this study, effects of ballistic missiles in the future on air battle theatre will be discussed in the beginning, during the process and at the end phase of air operations within the scope of an effect-based approach. © COPYRIGHT SPIE. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only. Source


Turan M.,Turkish Air War College Hava Harp Akademisi | Gunay F.,Turkish Air War College Hava Harp Akademisi | Aslan A.,Turkish Air War College Hava Harp Akademisi
Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems: Theory and Applications | Year: 2012

Unmanned Aircraft (UA) have become an integral part of the present-day joint air operations. UA have potential to be employed across the full spectrum of Air Force functions. On the other hand, UA technology could be a subject of an asymmetric use by state actors in high or low density conflict, and/or by non-state actors in many ways including terrorism, drug smuggling, and limited attack with unconventional payloads i.e. biological or chemical agents. Therefore countering the threat associated with the hostile UA use could be necessary in the future. First part of the research revealed that UA can be a threat in the future. In the second part of the research, the SWOT (Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats) analysis supplemented with the Tree analysis (SWOT+Tree) provided a broader look for investigating the factors related to hostile UA use analytically. In literature, there is little information about the concepts for CUAOPS. The final goal of the paper is to find possible solutions and means for a better understanding of the nature of CUAOPS. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Kurkcu C.,Turkish Air War College Hava Harp Akademisi | Erhan H.,Turkish Air War College Hava Harp Akademisi | Umut S.,Turkish Air War College Hava Harp Akademisi
Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems: Theory and Applications | Year: 2012

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) play increasingly important roles in many modern militaries. The proven success of UAS during operations in Afghanistan and Iraq has created a demand for UAS with varying functionalities and capabilities. UAS are currently performing tasks and playing roles of manned systems in many mission areas. Although UAS are limited in meeting all the required parameters when compared to the manned systems, their low risk, low cost attributes and critical mission capabilities often make them preferable. However, the extent to which UAS can continue defining tomorrow's military missions is not predictable. There is some skepticism and hesitation about operating UAS with minimal human oversight and how it influences the operational effectiveness when the limitations of autonomy or constant control needs are accounted for. Therefore, it becomes crucially important to find out and apply the best match between systems and missions considering the type of the mission and the capabilities of UAS. The emerging challenge is to identify the place of UAS in operational structures and versatile missions, and possibly provide an integrative solution where both manned and unmanned systems collaborate in meeting given requirements in the future of warfare. The aim of this paper is to compare cognitive capabilities of manned systems and UAS, and evaluate them in the context of anticipated future operating environments. The evaluation will focus on the efficiency of systems on the cognitive domain of information environments and their impact on specific missions. The research is expected to contribute to a more informed structural transformation of modern militaries. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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