Cernuschi F.,RSE Ricerca sul Sistema Elettrico S.p.A. |
Capelli S.,RSE Ricerca sul Sistema Elettrico S.p.A. |
Bison P.,CNR Construction Technologies Institute |
Marinetti S.,CNR Construction Technologies Institute |
And 3 more authors.
Acta Materialia | Year: 2011
The diffused microscopic cracking of the interface between a thick (>300 μm) air plasma spray (APS) thermal barrier coating (TBC) and a bond coat cannot be clearly identified by non-destructive evaluation and testing techniques. In this work, a semi-quantitative estimation of cracks at the TBC interface is obtained from thermal diffusivity values measured on coupons subjected to thermal cycling using a single-side thermographic technique. In fact, during thermal cycling, two phenomena occur: sintering, which promotes a significant increase in thermal diffusivity, and cracking, representing an additional thermal resistance which causes an apparent decrease in thermal diffusivity. The results refer to an experimental activity carried out on 28 APS TBC samples cyclic aged at six different fractions of their lifetime. For each sample, the thermal diffusivity was measured at fixed lifetimes, and the evolution of the cracked fraction of the interface was estimated by adopting a two-dimensional inversion model. Furthermore, at each of the six lifetime fractions, some samples were destructively characterized by image analysis, and the results were compared with the estimations given by the inversion model. Good agreement between the non-destructive estimations and image analysis results was obtained. Moreover, a figure of merit incorporating both the cracked fraction and the crack thickness is also proposed for ranking the damage. © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2012.3.4 | Award Amount: 3.66M | Year: 2013
The economic viability and market place entry of SOFC power systems is directly dependent on their longevity and production costs. Adequate operational life spans can only be achieved, if the performance degradation of the SOFC stacks and Balance of Plant components over time can be considerably reduced. At the same time, manufacturing costs have to be lowered dramatically for the specifically necessary components securing the long component service life. As of now, chromium deactivation of the cathode is considered one of the major contributions to the degradation of SOFC stacks. Since chromium steels, on the other hand, are an essential material in reducing stack costs, methods have to be found to make best use of their advantages whilst avoiding chromium transport to the cathode. Balance of Plant components upstream of the cathode also contribute to the chromium immission, a fact that is often overseen and requires protective coatings also for any components situated in the air flow pathway to the cathode. Finally, the build-up of oxide scales will influence the electrical resistance and contact resistance thus requiring coatings for the stabilisation of the contacts on both cathode and anode side of the SOFC cell. Within the project Real-SOFC first steps have been made towards developing suitable combinations of steels and coatings. It has become apparent that any steel will require a coating in order to sufficiently reduce chromium evaporation and oxide layer build-up, and also sustain a low surface resistivity. More recently, a variety of new coating techniques have been reported that require further evaluation under SOFC relevant operating conditions. The project proposed here aims to further elaborate on the production of coated steel components showing markedly improved properties with regard to chromium release, electrical resistivity and scale growth. The focus of ScoReD 2:0 will be on choosing optimised combinations of protective layer materials with different steel qualities (including low-cost options) and analysing the influence, practicality and cost of different methods of coating. Also in understanding which factors influence the efficacy of such coatings.
Turbocoating | Date: 2013-03-25
Machines and installations for processing materials, in particular metalworking machines for special processes and production of protective coatings for components used in industrial gas turbines and engines for aircraft and other industrial sectors. Treatment of metal, treatment of ceramics and polymers, in particular spraying, and surface application treatment of components used in industrial gas turbines and engines for aircraft and other industrial sectors.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2010.3.1;SP1-JTI-FCH.2010.3.2 | Award Amount: 4.73M | Year: 2012
Lightweight SOFC stacks are currently being developed for stationary applications such as residential CHP units, for automotive applications such as APU and for portable devices. They supply electrical efficiencies of up to 60%, a high fuel flexibility, being able to operate on syn-gas from Diesel reforming as well as LPG, methane or hydrogen, and promising costs due to greatly reduced amounts of steel interconnect material. The project proposal addresses a novel design solution for lightweight SOFC stacks that decouples the thermal stresses within the stack and at the same time allows optimal sealing and contacting. In this way the capability for thermal cycling is enhanced and degradation of contacting reduced. Performance is increased since the force needed for secure contacting is now independent of the force required to secure gas tightness of the sealing joints. The design is highly suitable for industrial manufacturing and automated assembly. The industrial partners will build up the necessary tools and appliances for low cost production of repeating units and the automated quality control, stacking and assembly of stacks. In mobile and portable applications the requirements for thermal cycling are high. It is therefore essential that lightweight stacks have excellent thermal cycling and rapid start-up capabilities. The stack design supplies a compensation of thermo-mechanical stresses between cell and cell frame / repeating unit. Thin steel sheets with protective coating are used for the sake of cost reduction and sufficient stack lifetime, also for stationary applications. The latter will also benefit from improved start-up times, since this allows a more flexible and load-oriented operation.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: FoF.NMP.2013-10 | Award Amount: 4.22M | Year: 2013
The main objective of this project is to develop a radically new manufacturing industrial green process based on the electrodeposition of aluminium from ionic liquids and post-processed the aluminium pure coating to obtain high-tech engineered metallic materials for the automotive and aeronautic sectors. This new process will replace conventional harmful techniques and will be more energy and material efficient. For achieving this goal, all barriers that difficult the industrialization of electrodeposition processes based on ionic liquid formulations will be overcome. SCAIL-UP project will seek for overcoming the barriers found in the upscaling of the process for electrodepositing Al with Ionic Liquids by the development of a radically new manufacturing industrial process for the automotive and aeronautic sectors. Thus the SCAIL-UP consortium will work on the design, development and validation of an industrial scale pilot plant that will be able to electroplate Al on current 3D polymeric (ABS) and metal (nickel alloys) industrial parts using Ionic Liquids.