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Moyer B.R.,Tunnell Consulting Inc. | Coleman C.N.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Mercier J.,Armed forces Radiobiology Research Institute | Bader J.L.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Health Physics | Year: 2011

Following the attacks of 11 September 2001, emergency preparedness within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, as well as at the Department of Defense and other federal agencies, received higher visibility, new mandates and increased funding. Emergency deployment teams increased the frequency of drills to enable better response to the health consequences of mass-casualty incidents. Interagency coordination has also continued to increase to more efficiently and effectively leverage federal resources toward emergency medical preparedness for both civilian and military populations. Copyright © 2011 Health Physics Society.

Moyer B.R.,Tunnell Consulting Inc. | Ramakrishnan N.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Kaminski J.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Coleman C.N.,NCI Inc | And 2 more authors.
Health Physics | Year: 2010

A large-scale radiological incident would result in an immediate critical need to assess the radiation doses received by thousands of individuals to allow for prompt triage and appropriate medical treatment. Measuring absorbed doses of ionizing radiation will require a system architecture or a system of platforms that contains diverse, integrated diagnostic and dosimetric tools that are accurate and precise. For large-scale incidents, rapidity and ease of screening are essential. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health is the focal point within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) for basic research and development of medical countermeasures for radiation injuries. The Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority within the HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response coordinates and administers programs for the advanced development and acquisition of emergency medical countermeasures for the Strategic National Stockpile. Using a combination of funding mechanisms, including funds authorized by the Project BioShield Act of 2004 and those authorized by the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act of 2006, HHS is enhancing the nation's preparedness by supporting the radiation dose assessment capabilities that will ensure effective and appropriate use of medical countermeasures in the aftermath of a radiological or nuclear incident. © 2010 Health Physics Society.

Huang I.-C.,Harvard University | Bailey C.C.,Harvard University | Weyer J.L.,Harvard University | Radoshitzky S.R.,U.S. Army | And 15 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2011

Interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins 1, 2, and 3 (IFITM1, 2, and 3) are recently identified viral restriction factors that inhibit infection mediated by the influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) protein. Here we show that IFITM proteins restricted infection mediated by the entry glycoproteins (GP1,2) of Marburg and Ebola filoviruses (MARV, EBOV). Consistent with these observations, interferon-β specifically restricted filovirus and IAV entry processes. IFITM proteins also inhibited replication of infectious MARV and EBOV. We observed distinct patterns of IFITM-mediated restriction: compared with IAV, the entry processes of MARV and EBOV were less restricted by IFITM3, but more restricted by IFITM1. Moreover, murine Ifitm5 and 6 did not restrict IAV, but efficiently inhibited filovirus entry. We further demonstrate that replication of infectious SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and entry mediated by the SARS-CoV spike (S) protein are restricted by IFITM proteins. The profile of IFITM-mediated restriction of SARS-CoV was more similar to that of filoviruses than to IAV. Trypsin treatment of receptor-associated SARS-CoV pseudovirions, which bypasses their dependence on lysosomal cathepsin L, also bypassed IFITM-mediated restriction. However, IFITM proteins did not reduce cellular cathepsin activity or limit access of virions to acidic intracellular compartments. Our data indicate that IFITM-mediated restriction is localized to a late stage in the endocytic pathway. They further show that IFITM proteins differentially restrict the entry of a broad range of enveloped viruses, and modulate cellular tropism independently of viral receptor expression.

Lolas A.G.,Visionary Pharma Consulting LLC | Uydess I.,Tunnell Consulting Inc.
BioPharm International | Year: 2013

The recent surge in the number of enforcement actions suggests that the current state of quality and compliance in the pharmaceutical industry is far from optimal. While some advances have been made, it appears little progress has been made in others. Advances in technology and quality initiatives have not on their own resulted in improved product quality or better-controlled manufacturing processes. The causes are varied and frequently interrelated. Let's take another look inward, as well as outward, to see how best to accomplish the goals we all aspire to with regard to quality. © 2013 Advanstar Communications, Inc.

Miller E.H.,Yeshiva University | Harrison J.S.,Yeshiva University | Radoshitzky S.R.,U.S. Army | Higgins C.D.,Yeshiva University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2011

Ebola virus (EboV) and Marburg virus (MarV) (filoviruses) are the causative agents of severe hemorrhagic fever. Infection begins with uptake of particles into cellular endosomes, where the viral envelope glycoprotein (GP) catalyzes fusion between the viral and host cell membranes. This fusion event is thought to involve conformational rearrangements of the transmembrane subunit (GP2) of the envelope spike that ultimately result in formation of a six-helix bundle by the N- and C-terminal heptad repeat (NHR and CHR, respectively) regions of GP2. Infection by other viruses employing similar viral entry mechanisms (such as HIV-1 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) can be inhibited with synthetic peptides corresponding to the native CHR sequence ("C- peptides"). However, previously reported EboV C-peptides have shown weak or insignificant antiviral activity. To determine whether the activity of a C-peptide could be improved by increasing its intracellular concentration, we prepared an EboV C-peptide conjugated to the arginine-rich sequence from HIV-1 Tat, which is known to accumulate in endosomes. We found that this peptide specifically inhibited viral entry mediated by filovirus GP proteins and infection by authentic filoviruses. We determined that antiviral activity was dependent on both the Tat sequence and the native EboV CHR sequence. Mechanistic studies suggested that the peptide acts by blocking a membrane fusion intermediate.

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