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Hu C.,Tumour Biology | Raja Solomon V.,Tumour Biology | Raja Solomon V.,Laurentian University | Cano P.,Oncology | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the enhancement value of chloroquine analogs when used in combination with Akt inhibitors on the MDA-MB468, MDA-MB231 and MCF7 human breast cancer cell lines. The result showed that the combination of certain chloroquine analogs and Akt inhibitors are highly effective. In particular, the chloroquine analog N′-(7-fluoro-quinolin-4-yl)-N,N-dimethyl-ethane-1,2-diamine (compound 5) was highly effective in sensitizing cancer cell killing when combined with either Akt inhibitor 8 (1-{1-[4-(7-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-g]quinoxalin-6-yl)-benzyl]-piperidin-4-yl}-1,3-dihydro-benzoimidazol-2-one) or 9 ([4-(2-chloro-4a,10a-dihydro-phenoxazin-10-yl)-butyl]-diethyl-amine hydrochloride). Importantly, the enhancement of chloroquine analogs 5 on cell killing by Akt inhibitors 8 and 9 was cancer-specific. Thus, this combinational approach is highly promising in controlling tumors with a minimum side effect. Structural analysis of effective and ineffective chloroquine analogs suggests that the 4-aminoquinoline scaffold and lateral side chain of dimethylamino functionality play an important role for the enhancement of cell killing by Akt inhibitors. © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Source

Knockleby J.W.,Tumour Biology | Lee H.,Tumour Biology | Lee H.,University of Ottawa
Cell Cycle | Year: 2010

Genome replication is the most fundamental element of the continuity of life. In eukaryotes, DNA replication is regulated by an elegant network of many different protein factors to ensure the timely and accurate copying of their entire genome once per cell cycle. The replication factors include the origin recognition complex (ORC), minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins, Cdt1, Cdc6, Cdc7, Cdc45 and geminin. All of these proteins are involved in the regulation of DNA replication at the initiation step. Interestingly, recent studies have shown that some of these replication proteins also localize to the centrosome, often throughout the entire cell cycle. These centrosomally localized replication proteins appear to play essential roles in the regulation of centrosome biogenesis, suggesting that genome replication and segregation are regulated interdependently. In this review, we summarize and discuss the inter-dependent regulation played by some of the replication proteins. © 2010 Landes Bioscience. Source

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