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Resovi A.,Tumor Angiogenesis Unit | Pinessi D.,Tumor Angiogenesis Unit | Chiorino G.,Laboratory of Cancer Genomics | Taraboletti G.,Tumor Angiogenesis Unit
Matrix Biology | Year: 2014

The multifaceted action of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) depends on its ability to physically interact with different ligands, including structural components of the extracellular matrix, other matricellular proteins, cell receptors, growth factors, cytokines and proteases. Through this network, TSP-1 regulates the ligand activity, availability and structure, ultimately tuning the cell response to environmental stimuli in a context-dependent manner, contributing to physiological and pathological processes. Complete mapping of the TSP-1 interactome is needed to understand its diverse functions and to lay the basis for the rational design of TSP-1-based therapeutic approaches. So far, large-scale approaches to identify TSP-1 ligands have been rarely used, but many interactions have been identified in small-scale studies in defined biological systems. This review, based on information from protein interaction databases and the literature, illustrates current knowledge of the TSP-1 interactome map. © 2014 The Authors.

Belotti D.,Tumor Angiogenesis Unit | Capelli C.,Uss Centro Of Terapia Cellulare G Lanzani | Resovi A.,Tumor Angiogenesis Unit | Introna M.,Uss Centro Of Terapia Cellulare G Lanzani | Taraboletti G.,Tumor Angiogenesis Unit
Matrix Biology | Year: 2016

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are characterized by unique tropism for wounded tissues, high differentiating capacity, ability to induce tissue repair, and anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. This has generated interest in their therapeutic use in severe human conditions as well as in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Identification of factors involved in the regulation of MSC proliferation, migration and differentiation could provide insights into the pathophysiological regulation of MSC and be exploited to optimize clinical grade expansion protocols for therapeutic use.Here we identify thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) as a major regulator of MSC. TSP-1 induced MSC proliferation. This effect was mediated by TSP-1-induced activation of endogenous TGFβ, as shown by the inhibitory effects of anti-TGFβ antibodies and by the lack of activity of TSP-2 - that does not activate TGFβ. Moreover, TSP-1 strongly potentiated the proliferative and migratory activity of PDGF on MSC. TSP-1 directly bound to PDGF, through a site located within the TSP-1 type III repeats, and protected the growth factor from degradation by MSC-derived proteases, hence increasing its stability and bioavailability.The studies presented here identify a more comprehensive picture of the pleiotropic effect of TSP-1 on MSC behavior, setting the basis for further studies aimed at investigating the possible use of PDGF and TSP-1 in the in vitro expansion of MSC for therapeutic applications. © 2016 International Society of Matrix Biology.

Borsotti P.,Tumor Angiogenesis Unit | Ghilardi C.,Laboratory of Biology and Therapy of Metastasis | Ostano P.,Laboratory of Cancer Genomics | Silini A.,Laboratory of Biology and Therapy of Metastasis | And 13 more authors.
Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research | Year: 2015

Differently from most transformed cells, cutaneous melanoma expresses the pleiotropic factor thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1). Herein, we show that TSP-1 (RNA and protein), undetectable in four cultures of melanocytes and a RGP melanoma, was variously present in 13 cell lines from advanced melanomas or metastases. Moreover, microarray analysis of 55 human lesions showed higher TSP-1 expression in primary melanomas and metastases than in common and dysplastic nevi. In a functional enrichment analysis, the expression of TSP-1 correlated with motility-related genes. Accordingly, TSP-1 production was associated with melanoma cell motility in vitro and lung colonization potential in vivo. VEGF/VEGFR-1 and FGF-2, involved in melanoma progression, regulated TSP-1 production. These factors were coexpressed with TSP-1 and correlated negatively with Slug (SNAI2), a cell migration master gene implicated in melanoma metastasis. We conclude that TSP-1 cooperates with FGF-2 and VEGF/VEGFR-1 in determining melanoma invasion and metastasis, as part of a Slug-independent motility program. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Dossi R.,Tumor Angiogenesis Unit | Frapolli R.,Laboratory of Cancer Pharmacology | Di Giandomenico S.,Laboratory of Cancer Pharmacology | Paracchini L.,Laboratory of Cancer Pharmacology | And 13 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2015

Trabectedin is a marine natural product, approved in Europe for the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma and relapsed ovarian cancer. Clinical and experimental evidence indicates that trabectedin is particularly effective against myxoid liposarcomas where response is associated to regression of capillary networks. Here, we investigated the mechanism of the antiangiogenic activity of trabectedin in myxoid liposarcomas. Trabectedin directly targeted endothelial cells, impairing functions relying on extracellular matrix remodeling (invasion and branching morphogenesis) through the upregulation of the inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Increased TIMPs synthesis by the tumor microenvironment following trabectedin treatment was confirmed in xenograft models of myxoid liposarcoma. In addition, trabectedin upregulated tumor cell expression of the endogenous inhibitor thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1, a key regulator of angiogenesis-dependent dormancy in sarcoma), in in vivo models of myxoid liposarcomas, in vitro cell lines and primary cell cultures from patients' myxoid liposarcomas. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that trabectedin displaced the master regulator of adipogenesis C/EBPβ from the TSP-1 promoter, indicating an association between the upregulation of TSP-1 and induction of adipocytic differentiation program by trabectedin. We conclude that trabectedin inhibits angiogenesis through multiple mechanisms, including directly affecting endothelial cells in the tumor microenvironment-with a potentially widespread activity-and targeting tumor cells' angiogenic activity, linked to a tumor-specific molecular alteration. © 2014 UICC.

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