Tufts University is a private research university located in Medford/Somerville, near Boston, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. The university is organized into ten schools, including two undergraduate programs and eight graduate divisions, on four campuses in Massachusetts and the French Alps. The university emphasizes active citizenship and public service in all of its disciplines and is known for its internationalism and study abroad programs. Among its schools is the United States' oldest graduate school of international relations, The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.Tufts College was founded in 1852 by Christian Universalists who worked for years to open a non-sectarian institution of higher learning. Charles Tufts donated the land for the campus on Walnut Hill, the highest point in Medford, saying that he wanted to set a "light on the hill." The name was changed to Tufts University in 1954, although the corporate name remains "the Trustees of Tufts College." For more than a century, Tufts was a small New England liberal arts college. The French-American nutritionist Jean Mayer became president of Tufts in the late 1970s and, through a series of rapid acquisitions, transformed the school into an internationally renowned research university. It consistently ranks among the nation's top schools. Wikipedia.
Tufts University | Date: 2015-08-31
A method for determining a hemoglobin saturation of a volume-oscillating vascular compartment in tissue includes receiving data representing measurements of a number of oscillating hemoglobin concentrations from the tissue and determining the hemoglobin saturation of the volume-oscillating vascular compartment to exclude an effect of an oscillating rate of supply of oxygenated blood to a portion of the tissue including removing a first contribution on one or more of the oscillating hemoglobin concentration measurements from at least one of the measurements, the first contribution being phase offset relative to said measurements.
Tufts University | Date: 2016-02-29
The inventions provided herein relate to silk-based scaffolds and methods of producing the same, which can be used for a range of tissue engineering applications. The fabrication methods described herein provide a versatile platform to incorporate hollow conduits (e.g., for nutrient/oxygen delivery) through three-dimensional silk-based scaffolds that have tunable bulk properties (e.g., but not limited to, porosity, mechanical, degradation rate) and allow endothelialization and/or cell compartmentalization, for engineering a variety of complex tissue equivalents.
Tufts University | Date: 2016-04-20
Certain bile acids, including novel bile acids, and derivatives thereof can be used to inhibit the germination of C. difficile spores and/or the growth of C. difficile cells. The methods and compositions of the invention are useful for preventing and treating C. difficile-associated diseases, including but not limited to C. difficile colitis.
Tufts University | Date: 2015-05-01
The present invention includes compositions and methods of co-transformation of naturally competent cells. In one aspect of the invention, a method is included for introducing nucleic acid sequences into one or more naturally competent cells in parallel. In other aspects, a heterogenic pool of co-transformed naturally competent cells and an apparatus for introducing two or more populations of nucleic acid sequences into a population of naturally competent cells in parallel are also included.
Tufts University | Date: 2016-09-02
This invention relates generally to (but is not limited to) identifying food compounds that have an impact on a phenotype of interest in a subject, and more particularly to identifying a phenotype-related target, identifying a stimulus (e.g., a pharmaceutical agent) that modulates that target, and identifying food compounds exhibiting similarity to the agent (e.g., having a chemical structure that is similar to the agents structure). The similarity can be determined, for example, by a computer-interfaced comparison between a drug database and a food database.
Patel A.D.,Tufts University
PLoS Biology | Year: 2014
In The Descent of Man, Darwin speculated that our capacity for musical rhythm reflects basic aspects of brain function broadly shared among animals. Although this remains an appealing idea, it is being challenged by modern cross-species research. This research hints that our capacity to synchronize to a beat, i.e., to move in time with a perceived pulse in a manner that is predictive and flexible across a broad range of tempi, may be shared by only a few other species. Is this really the case? If so, it would have important implications for our understanding of the evolution of human musicality. © 2014 Aniruddh D.
Link M.S.,Tufts University
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012
A 24-year-old woman presents to the emergency department with the sole symptom of "a racing heart," which began abruptly while she was eating dinner. She reports having had prior episodes of palpitations that resolved spontaneously. In the emergency room, her blood pressure is 84/60 mm Hg. An electrocardiogram (ECG) reveals a regular narrow-complex tachycardia at a rate of 190 beats per minute without clear atrial activity (P waves). How should this case be managed? Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society.
Mozaffarian D.,Tufts University
Circulation | Year: 2016
Suboptimal nutrition is a leading cause of poor health. Nutrition and policy science have advanced rapidly, creating confusion yet also providing powerful opportunities to reduce the adverse health and economic impacts of poor diets. This review considers the history, new evidence, controversies, and corresponding lessons for modern dietary and policy priorities for cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Major identified themes include the importance of evaluating the full diversity of diet-related risk pathways, not only blood lipids or obesity; focusing on foods and overall diet patterns, rather than single isolated nutrients; recognizing the complex influences of different foods on long-term weight regulation, rather than simply counting calories; and characterizing and implementing evidence-based strategies, including policy approaches, for lifestyle change. Evidence-informed dietary priorities include increased fruits, nonstarchy vegetables, nuts, legumes, fish, vegetable oils, yogurt, and minimally processed whole grains; and fewer red meats, processed (eg, sodium-preserved) meats, and foods rich in refined grains, starch, added sugars, salt, and trans fat. More investigation is needed on the cardiometabolic effects of phenolics, dairy fat, probiotics, fermentation, coffee, tea, cocoa, eggs, specific vegetable and tropical oils, vitamin D, individual fatty acids, and diet-microbiome interactions. Little evidence to date supports the cardiometabolic relevance of other popular priorities: eg, local, organic, grass-fed, farmed/wild, or non-genetically modified. Evidence-based personalized nutrition appears to depend more on nongenetic characteristics (eg, physical activity, abdominal adiposity, gender, socioeconomic status, culture) than genetic factors. Food choices must be strongly supported by clinical behavior change efforts, health systems reforms, novel technologies, and robust policy strategies targeting economic incentives, schools and workplaces, neighborhood environments, and the food system. Scientific advances provide crucial new insights on optimal targets and best practices to reduce the burdens of diet-related cardiometabolic diseases. © 2016 The Authors.
Rios M.,Tufts University
Trends in Neurosciences | Year: 2013
A considerable body of evidence links diminished brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling to energy balance dysregulation and severe obesity in humans and rodents. Because BDNF exhibits broad neurotrophic properties, the underpinnings of these effects and its true role in the central regulation of food intake remain topics of debate in the field. Here, I discuss recent evidence supporting a critical role for this neurotrophin in physiological mechanisms regulating nutrient intake and body weight in the mature brain. They include reports of functional interactions of BDNF with central anorexigenic and orexigenic signaling pathways and evidence of recognized appetite hormones exerting neurotrophic effects similar to those of BDNF. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Walt D.R.,Tufts University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2010
This tutorial review describes how fibre optic microarrays can be used to create a variety of sensing and measurement systems. This review covers the basics of optical fibres and arrays, the different microarray architectures, and describes a multitude of applications. Such arrays enable multiplexed sensing for a variety of analytes including nucleic acids, vapours, and biomolecules. Polymer-coated fibre arrays can be used for measuring microscopic chemical phenomena, such as corrosion and localized release of biochemicals from cells. In addition, these microarrays can serve as a substrate for fundamental studies of single molecules and single cells. The review covers topics of interest to chemists, biologists, materials scientists, and engineers. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.