Tufts University is a private research university located in Medford/Somerville, near Boston, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. The university is organized into ten schools, including two undergraduate programs and eight graduate divisions, on four campuses in Massachusetts and the French Alps. The university emphasizes active citizenship and public service in all of its disciplines and is known for its internationalism and study abroad programs. Among its schools is the United States' oldest graduate school of international relations, The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.Tufts College was founded in 1852 by Christian Universalists who worked for years to open a non-sectarian institution of higher learning. Charles Tufts donated the land for the campus on Walnut Hill, the highest point in Medford, saying that he wanted to set a "light on the hill." The name was changed to Tufts University in 1954, although the corporate name remains "the Trustees of Tufts College." For more than a century, Tufts was a small New England liberal arts college. The French-American nutritionist Jean Mayer became president of Tufts in the late 1970s and, through a series of rapid acquisitions, transformed the school into an internationally renowned research university. It consistently ranks among the nation's top schools. Wikipedia.
Mozaffarian D.,Tufts University
Circulation | Year: 2016
Suboptimal nutrition is a leading cause of poor health. Nutrition and policy science have advanced rapidly, creating confusion yet also providing powerful opportunities to reduce the adverse health and economic impacts of poor diets. This review considers the history, new evidence, controversies, and corresponding lessons for modern dietary and policy priorities for cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Major identified themes include the importance of evaluating the full diversity of diet-related risk pathways, not only blood lipids or obesity; focusing on foods and overall diet patterns, rather than single isolated nutrients; recognizing the complex influences of different foods on long-term weight regulation, rather than simply counting calories; and characterizing and implementing evidence-based strategies, including policy approaches, for lifestyle change. Evidence-informed dietary priorities include increased fruits, nonstarchy vegetables, nuts, legumes, fish, vegetable oils, yogurt, and minimally processed whole grains; and fewer red meats, processed (eg, sodium-preserved) meats, and foods rich in refined grains, starch, added sugars, salt, and trans fat. More investigation is needed on the cardiometabolic effects of phenolics, dairy fat, probiotics, fermentation, coffee, tea, cocoa, eggs, specific vegetable and tropical oils, vitamin D, individual fatty acids, and diet-microbiome interactions. Little evidence to date supports the cardiometabolic relevance of other popular priorities: eg, local, organic, grass-fed, farmed/wild, or non-genetically modified. Evidence-based personalized nutrition appears to depend more on nongenetic characteristics (eg, physical activity, abdominal adiposity, gender, socioeconomic status, culture) than genetic factors. Food choices must be strongly supported by clinical behavior change efforts, health systems reforms, novel technologies, and robust policy strategies targeting economic incentives, schools and workplaces, neighborhood environments, and the food system. Scientific advances provide crucial new insights on optimal targets and best practices to reduce the burdens of diet-related cardiometabolic diseases. © 2016 The Authors.
Link M.S.,Tufts University
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012
A 24-year-old woman presents to the emergency department with the sole symptom of "a racing heart," which began abruptly while she was eating dinner. She reports having had prior episodes of palpitations that resolved spontaneously. In the emergency room, her blood pressure is 84/60 mm Hg. An electrocardiogram (ECG) reveals a regular narrow-complex tachycardia at a rate of 190 beats per minute without clear atrial activity (P waves). How should this case be managed? Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society.
Patel A.D.,Tufts University
PLoS Biology | Year: 2014
In The Descent of Man, Darwin speculated that our capacity for musical rhythm reflects basic aspects of brain function broadly shared among animals. Although this remains an appealing idea, it is being challenged by modern cross-species research. This research hints that our capacity to synchronize to a beat, i.e., to move in time with a perceived pulse in a manner that is predictive and flexible across a broad range of tempi, may be shared by only a few other species. Is this really the case? If so, it would have important implications for our understanding of the evolution of human musicality. © 2014 Aniruddh D.
Johnson E.J.,Tufts University
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012
Epidemiologic studies suggest that dietary lutein and zeaxanthin may be of benefit in maintaining cognitive health. Among the carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin are the only two that cross the blood-retina barrier to form macular pigment (MP) in the eye. They also preferentially accumulate in the human brain. Lutein and zeaxanthin in macula from nonhuman primates were found to be significantly correlated with their concentrations in matched brain tissue. Therefore, MP can be used as a biomarker of lutein and zeaxanthin in primate brain tissue. This is of interest given that a significant correlation was found between MP density and global cognitive function in healthy older adults. An examination of a relation between cognition and lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in the brain tissue of decedents from a population-based study in centenarians found that zeaxanthin concentrations in brain tissue were significantly related to antemortem measures of global cognitive function, memory retention, verbal fluency, and dementia severity after adjustment for age, sex, education, hypertension, and diabetes. In univariate analyses, lutein was related to recall and verbal fluency, but the strength of the associations was attenuated with adjustment for covariates. However, lutein concentrations in the brain were significantly lower in individuals with mild cognitive impairment than in those with normal cognitive function. Last, in a 4-mo, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in older women that involved lutein supplementation (12 mg/d), alone or in combination with DHA (800 mg/d), verbal fluency scores improved significantly in the DHA, lutein, and combined-treatment groups. Memory scores and rate of learning improved significantly in the combined-treatment group, who also showed a trend toward more efficient learning. When all of these observations are taken into consideration, the idea that lutein and zeaxanthin can influence cognitive function in older adults warrants further study. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition.
Anwer M.S.,Tufts University
Hepatology | Year: 2014
Transhepatic solute transport provides the osmotic driving force for canalicular bile formation. Choleretic and cholestatic agents affect bile formation, in part, by altering plasma membrane localizations of transporters involved in bile formation. These short-term dynamic changes in transporter location are highly regulated posttranslational events requiring various cellular signaling pathways. Interestingly, both choleretic and cholestatic agents activate the same intracellular signaling kinases, such as phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase C (PKC), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). An emerging theme is that choleretic and cholestatic effects may be mediated by different isoforms of these kinases. This is most evident for PKC-mediated regulation of plasma membrane localization of Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) by conventional PKCα (cPKCα), novel PKCδ (nPKCδ), nPKCε, and atypical PKCζ (aPKCζ). aPKCζ may mediate choleretic effects by inserting NTCP into the plasma membrane, and nPKCε may mediate cholestatic effects by retrieving MRP2 from the plasma membrane. On the other hand, cPKCα and nPKCδ may be involved in choleretic, cholestatic, and anticholestatic effects by inserting, retrieving, and inhibiting retrieval of transporters, respectively. The effects of PKC isoforms may be mediated by phosphorylation of the transporters, actin binding proteins (radixin and myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate), and Rab proteins. Human NTCP plays an important role in the entry of hepatitis B and D viruses into hepatocytes and consequent infection. Thus, PKCs, by regulating NTCP trafficking, may also play an important role in hepatic viral infections. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.