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Rogers T.J.,University of Adelaide | Thorpe C.M.,Tufts New England Medical Center | Paton A.W.,University of Adelaide | Paton J.C.,University of Adelaide
Infection and Immunity

Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) O113:H21 strains that lack the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) efficiently invade eukaryotic cells in vitro, unlike LEE-positive O157:H7 strains. We used a fliC deletion mutant of the O113:H21 STEC strain 98NK2 (98NK2ΔfliC) to show that invasion of colonic epithelial (HCT-8) cells is heavily dependent on production of flagellin, even though adherence to the cells was actually enhanced in the mutant. Flagellin binds and signals through Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), but there was no evidence that either TLR5, the adaptor protein myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), or the serine kinase interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) were required for invasion of HCT-8 cells by strain 98NK2, as judged by transfection, RNA knockdown, or inhibitor studies. However, pretreatment of cells with anti-asialo-GM1 significantly decreased 98NK2 invasion (by 40.8%), while neuraminidase treatment (which cleaves terminal sialic acid residues, thus converting GM1 into asialo-GM1) significantly increased invasion (by 70.7%). Pretreatment of HCT-8 cells with either the cholesterol-depleting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) or the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein significantly decreased invasion by 98NK2, indicating a potential role for lipid rafts in the invasion mechanism. Confocal microscopy also showed invading 98NK2 colocalized with lipid raft markers caveolin-1 and GM1. Interestingly, anti-asialo-GM1, neuraminidase, MβCD, and genistein have similar effects on the vestigial level of STEC invasion seen for STEC strain 98NK2ΔfliC, indicating that lipid rafts mediate a common step in flagellin-dependent and flagellin-independent cellular invasion. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Katz E.S.,Childrens Hospital | Katz E.S.,Harvard University | D'Ambrosio C.M.,Tufts New England Medical Center
Clinics in Chest Medicine

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common and serious cause of metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurocognitive morbidity in children. Children with OSAS have increased upper airway resistance during sleep due to a combination of soft tissue hypertrophy, craniofacial dysmorphology, neuromuscular weakness, or obesity. Consequently, children with OSAS encounter a combination of oxidative stress, inflammation, autonomic activation, and disruption of sleep homeostasis. The threshold amount of OSAS associated with adverse consequences varies widely among children, depending on genetic and environmental factors. The choice of therapy is predicated on the etiology, severity, and natural history of the increased upper airway resistance. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

This study was undertaken to generate human single chain variable antibody fragments (scFvs) reacting specifically against multiple myeloma (MM) cells using the phage display technique. To isolate myeloma-specific scFvs, we used a simple subtractive strategy by adsorbing the Griffin #1 antibody phage library against myeloma cells in the presence of excess decoy biotinylated HL60 cells, and then removing the unwanted decoy cells using streptavidin coated plates. From eleven scFvs that were isolated, two antibodies, D4A4 and D6B10 stained MM cell lines and patient MM cells with higher intensity than normal plasma cells. Both D4A4 and D6B10 scFvs immunoprecipitated syndecan-1 from myeloma cells and recognized sulfated motifs on syndecan-1-associated heparan sulfate (HS) chains. ScFv D4A4 competed with D6B10 for binding to MM cells. However, they differed in their fine specificities. ScFv D6B10 recognized HS 2,6-O-, N-sulfated motifs and, in contrast, binding of scFv D4A4 required N-sulfation combined with either 2-O- or 6-O-sulfation. Increased D6B10 binding on MM cells suggests that their HS chains contain a greater number of 2,6-O-, N-sulfated motifs than normal plasma cells. Since these highly sulfated motifs bind various angiogenic and growth factors and present them to their respective receptors, they could be instrumental for MM cell survival, proliferation and metastasis. Therefore, scFvs D4A4 and D6B10 provide a means to easily monitor changes in sulfation patterns of heparan sulfate during myeloma tumor progression. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source

Francis J.H.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Kleinerman R.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Seddon J.M.,Tufts New England Medical Center | Abramson D.H.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
Gynecologic Oncology

Objective: In the US, second non-ocular malignancies are the primary cause of death in retinoblastoma survivors with the germline RB1 mutation. Soft tissue sarcomas are one of the most likely malignancies to pose a risk to these patients, with leiomyosarcoma (LMS) being the most common subtype. As our cohort is followed for a longer period, we discover new second malignancy risks for these patients. Methods: We estimated the risk for uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) in a cohort of 1854 patients with retinoblastoma who were diagnosed at two US institutions from 1914 through 1996. The standardized incidence ratio and excess absolute risk were calculated by comparison with population data from the Connecticut Tumor Registry or from National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The cumulative risk at 50 years of age was also calculated. Results: Seven of 525 female hereditary retinoblastoma patients developed ULMS. Five of these patients were used in the risk analysis, resulting in an excess risk of 3.87 per 10,000 women. Among hereditary patients who developed ULMS the excess risk increases dramatically with age: to 20/10,000 for female hereditary retinoblastoma patients aged between 30 and 39 years, and to 27/10,000 for patients aged 40 + years. Conclusion: There is a substantial excess risk of ULMS in female hereditary retinoblastoma patients. As more patients survive into their thirties, this number is likely to increase. These findings raise the question of early childbearing, screening and prophylactic measures in hereditary retinoblastoma patients: all issues that would benefit from confirmation from other retinoblastoma cohorts, to allow for better guided counsel of these patients. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Janoff E.N.,University of Colorado at Denver | Rubins J.B.,University of Minnesota | Fasching C.,Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Charboneau D.,University of Minnesota | And 3 more authors.
Mucosal Immunology

Bacterial immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases may sabotage the protective effects of IgA. In vitro, both exogenous and endogenously produced IgA1 protease inhibited phagocytic killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae by capsule-specific IgA1 human monoclonal antibodies (hMAbs) but not IgA2. These IgA1 proteases cleaved and reduced binding of the the effector Fc1 heavy chain but not the antigen-binding F(ab)/light chain to pneumococcal surfaces. In vivo, IgA1 protease-resistant IgA2, but not IgA1 protease-sensitive IgA1, supported 60% survival in mice infected with wild-type S. pneumoniae. IgA1 hMAbs protected mice against IgA1 protease-deficient but not -producing pneumococci. Parallel mouse sera with human IgA2 showed more efficient complement-mediated reductions in pneumococci with neutrophils than did IgA1, particularly with protease-producing organisms. After natural human pneumococcal bacteremia, purified serum IgG inhibited IgA1 protease activity in 7 of 11 patients (64%). These observations provide the first evidence in vivo that IgA1 protease can circumvent killing of S. pneumoniae by human IgA. Acquisition of IgA1 protease-neutralizing IgG after infection directs attention to IgA1 protease both as a determinant of successful colonization and infection and as a potential vaccine candidate. © 2014 Society for Mucosal Immunology. Source

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