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Reichert J.M.,Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development
mAbs | Year: 2010

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a burgeoning class of therapeutics, with more than 25 approved in countries worldwide. Novel molecules are entering clinical study at a rate of nearly 40 per year, and the commercial pipeline includes approximately 240 mAb therapeutics in clinical studies that have not yet progressed to regulatory approval or been approved. of particular interest are the 26 mAbs that are currently at Phase 3, when safety and efficacy data critical to approval is established. Phase 3 study lengths are typically two to four years, so results for some studies might be announced in 2010, but data from others might not be presented until 2014. This overview of the 26 candidates provides a brief description of the background and the on-going Phase 3 studies of each mAb. Additional mAbs that have progressed to regulatory review or been approved may also be in Phase 3 studies, but these, as well as Fc fusion proteins, have been excluded. due to the large body of primary literature about the 26 candidates, only selected references are given, with a focus on recent publications and articles that were relevant to Phase 3 studies. Current as of october 2009, the results presented here will serve as a baseline against which future progress can be measured. © 2010 Landes Bioscience. Source


Nelson A.L.,Tufts University | Nelson A.L.,Novartis | Dhimolea E.,Tufts University | Reichert J.M.,Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery | Year: 2010

Fully human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a promising and rapidly growing category of targeted therapeutic agents. The first such agents were developed during the 1980s, but none achieved clinical or commercial success. Advances in technology to generate the molecules for study- in particular, transgenic mice and yeast or phage display- renewed interest in the development of human mAbs during the 1990s. In 2002, adalimumab became the first human mAb to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Since then, an additional six human mAbs have received FDA approval: panitumumab, golimumab, canakinumab, ustekinumab, ofatumumab and denosumab. In addition, 3 candidates (raxibacumab, belimumab and ipilimumab) are currently under review by the FDA, 7 are in Phase III studies and 81 are in either Phase I or II studies. Here, we analyse data on 147 human mAbs that have entered clinical study to highlight trends in their development and approval, which may help inform future studies of this class of therapeutic agents. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Cohen J.P.,Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development
New Biotechnology | Year: 2012

The number of personalized medicines and companion diagnostics in use in the United States has gradually increased over the past decade, from a handful of medicines and tests in 2001 to several dozen in 2011. However, the numbers have not reached the potential hoped for when the human genome project was completed in 2001. Significant clinical, regulatory, and economic barriers exist and persist. From a regulatory perspective, therapeutics and companion diagnostics are ideally developed simultaneously, with the clinical significance of the diagnostic established using data from the clinical development program of the corresponding therapeutic. Nevertheless, this is not (yet) happening. Most personalized medicines are personalized post hoc, that is, a companion diagnostic is developed separately and approved after the therapeutic. This is due in part to a separate and more complex regulatory process for diagnostics coupled with a lack of clear regulatory guidance. More importantly, payers have placed restrictions on reimbursement of personalized medicines and their companion diagnostics, given the lack of evidence on the clinical utility of many tests. To achieve increased clinical adoption of diagnostics and targeted therapies through more favorable reimbursement and incorporation in clinical practice guidelines, regulators will need to provide unambiguous guidance and manufacturers will need to bring more and better clinical evidence to the market place. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Reichert J.M.,Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development
mAbs | Year: 2011

This overview of 25 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and five Fc fusion protein therapeutics provides brief descriptions of the candidates, recently published clinical study results and on-going Phase 3 studies. In alphanumeric order, the 2011 therapeutic antibodies to watch list comprises AIN-457, bapineuzumab, brentuximab vedotin, briakinumab, dalotuzumab, epratuzumab, farletuzumab, girentuximab (WX-G250), naptumomab estafenatox, necitumumab, obinutuzumab, otelixizumab, pagibaximab, pertuzumab, ramucirumab, REGN88, reslizumab, solanezumab, T1h, teplizumab, trastuzumab emtansine, tremelimumab, vedolizumab, zalutumumab and zanolimumab. In alphanumeric order, the 2011 Fc fusion protein therapeutics to watch list comprises aflibercept, AMG-386, atacicept, Factor VIII-Fc and Factor IX-Fc. Commercially-sponsored mAb and Fc fusion therapeutics that have progressed only as far as Phase 2/3 or 3 were included. Candidates undergoing regulatory review or products that have been approved may also be in Phase 3 studies, but these were excluded. Due to the large body of primary literature about the candidates, only selected references are given and results from recent publications and articles that were relevant to Phase 3 studies are emphasized. Current as of September 2010, the information presented here will serve as a baseline against which future progress in the development of antibody-based therapeutics can be measured. © 2011 Landes Bioscience. Source


Reichert J.M.,Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development
mAbs | Year: 2010

A wide variety of full-size monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats can be produced through genetic and biological engineering techniques. These molecules are now filling the preclinical and clinical pipelines of every major pharmaceutical company and many biotechnology firms. Metrics for the development of antibody therapeutics, including averages for the number of candidates entering clinical study and development phase lengths for mAbs approved in the United States, were derived from analysis of a dataset of over 600 therapeutic mAbs that entered clinical study sponsored, at least in part, by commercial firms. The results presented provide an overview of the field and context for the evaluation of on-going and prospective mAb development programs. The expansion of therapeutic antibody use through supplemental marketing approvals and the increase in the study of therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats are discussed. © 2010 Landes Bioscience. Source

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