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Shriram A.N.,Medical Port | Krishnamoorthy K.,Vector Control Research Center Indian Council of Medical Research | Saha B.P.,Filaria and Vector Borne Diseases | Roy A.,Directorate of Health Services | And 4 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2011

The elimination of lymphatic filariasis in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands provides unique opportunities and challenges at the same time. Since these islands are remote, are sparsely populated, and have poor transport networks, mass drug administration programs are likely to be difficult to implement. Diurnally subperiodic Wuchereria bancrofti vectored by Downsiomyia nivea was considered for the scope of vector control options. Considering the bioecology of this mosquito, vector control including personal protection measures may not be feasible. However, since these islands are covered by separate administrative machinery which also plays an important role in regulating the food supply, the use of diethylcarbamazine (DEC)-fortified salt as a tool for the interruption of transmission is appealing. DEC-fortified salt has been successfully pilot tested in India and elsewhere, operationally used by China for eliminating lymphatic filariasis. Administration of DEC-fortified salt though simple, rapid, safe, and cost-effective, challenges are to be tackled for translating this precept into action by evolving operationally feasible strategy. Although the use of DEC-fortified salt is conceptually simple, it requires commitment of all sections of the society, an elaborate distribution mechanism that ensures the use of DEC-fortified salt only in the endemic communities, and a vigorous monitoring mechanism. Here, we examine the inbuilt administrative mechanisms to serve the tribal people, health infrastructure, and public distribution system and discuss the prospects of putting in place an operationally feasible strategy for its elimination. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Senbagavalli P.,National Institutes of Health | Anuradha R.,National Institutes of Health | Ramanathan V.D.,Tuberculosis Research Center Indian Council of Medical Research | Kumaraswami V.,Tuberculosis Research Center | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2011

The presence of circulating immune complexes (CICs) is a characteristic feature of human lymphatic filariasis. However, the role of CICs in modulating granulocyte function and complement functional activity in filarial infection is unknown. The levels of CICs in association with complement activation in clinically asymptomatic, filarial-infected patients (INF); filarial-infected patients with overt lymphatic pathologic changes (CPDT); and uninfected controls (EN) were examined. Significantly increased levels of CICs and enhanced functional efficiency of the classical and mannose-binding lectin pathways of the complement system was observed in INF compared with CPDT and EN. Polyethylene glycol - precipitated CICs from INF and CPDT induced significantly increased granulocyte activation compared with those from EN, determined by the increased production of neutrophil granular proteins and a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thus, CIC-mediated enhanced granulocyte activation and modulation of complement function are important features of filarial infection and disease. Copyright © 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source

Suhadev M.,Tuberculosis Research Center Indian Council of Medical Research | Mahadevan U.,Loyola College | Dilip M.,Tuberculosis Research Center Indian Council of Medical Research | Suryanarayanan D.,Tuberculosis Research Center Indian Council of Medical Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care | Year: 2011

Most studies have described the outcome of HIV status disclosure rather than the process of disclosure. Hence, a study was conducted among 201 women who accompanied their spouses and children to 3 hospitals at Chennai and Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India, during January to June 2007. Majority of the respondents were sero-positive (69%) and marriage was the only risk factor for them. Of 201 women, 49% did not know the reason for their husbands' HIV infection. Confidentiality of the patient was often breached during disclosure as family members were drawn into the process without consulting the patient. Only for 117 (50%) respondents, HIV diagnosis was disclosed directly by the health providers. There was a considerable delay for men in disclosing their HIV status to their spouses. Apart from the spouses, 122 (61%) shared their diagnosis with other family members. Disgrace to self and family (54%), fear of discrimination (27%), and fear of rejection (9%) were reported for nondisclosure. © The Author(s) 2011. Source

Subramanyam B.,Tuberculosis Research Center Indian Council of Medical Research | Kumar V.,Tuberculosis Research Center Indian Council of Medical Research | Perumal V.,Tuberculosis Research Center Indian Council of Medical Research | Nagamiah S.,Tuberculosis Research Center Indian Council of Medical Research
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

The overgrowth of normal flora escaping the action of sputum processing chemicals is the major problem in broth-based tuberculosis (TB) detection systems. The use of phages to control the overgrowth of normal flora in processed sputum samples has already been established. Phage lysin and its supplementation to phagebiotics for the effective control of normal flora in sputum specimens were evaluated. Crude lysin was prepared from phage host mixture using standard procedures. About 120 sputum samples processed with 4% NaOH were collected and used to evaluate the effect of lysin, phagebiotics and phagebiotics supplemented with lysin on the overgrowth of normal flora. The effect of phagebiotics and lysin on the growth and retrieval of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was studied by conventional methods and the luciferase reporter phage (LRP) assay. Lysin alone and phagebiotics supplemented with lysin arrested the growth of normal flora in a significantly greater number of samples than phagebiotics alone. Lysin and phagebiotics did not show any inhibitory activity on M. tuberculosis. The use of antibiotics can be replaced by lysin or phagebiotics supplemented with lysin to control the overgrowth of normal flora in processed sputum samples without hampering the viability of M. tuberculosis. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Kumar A.K.H.,Tuberculosis Research Center Indian Council of Medical Research | Sudha V.,Tuberculosis Research Center Indian Council of Medical Research | Srinivasan R.,Tuberculosis Research Center Indian Council of Medical Research | Ramachandran G.,Tuberculosis Research Center Indian Council of Medical Research
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2011

A high performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of moxifloxacin in human saliva was developed. The method involved deproteinisation of the sample with perchloric acid and analysis of the supernatant using a reversed-phase C18 column (150 mm) and fluorescence detection at an excitation wavelength of 290 nm and an emission wavelength of 460 nm. The assay was specific for moxifloxacin and linear from 0.25 to 10.0. μg/ml. The relative standard deviation of intra- and inter-day assays was lower than 10%. The average recovery of moxifloxacin from saliva was 101%. Due to its simplicity, the assay can be used for pharmacokinetic studies of moxifloxacin. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

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