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Budzik J.M.,University of California at San Francisco | Jarlsberg L.G.,San Francisco General Hospital | Higashi J.,Tuberculosis Control Unit | Grinsdale J.,Tuberculosis Control Unit | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a first line agent for the treatment of active tuberculosis. PZA is also considered a potent companion drug for newer regimens under development. There are limited data on the demographic, clinical, and pathogen characteristics of PZA resistant tuberculosis. Methods: Using a retrospective cohort study design, we evaluated all PZA resistant M. tuberculosis (M.tb) and M. bovis cases reported in San Francisco from 1991 to 2011. Demographic, clinical, and molecular data were analyzed. M.tb lineage was determined for all PZA resistant strains and compared to PZA susceptible strains. Results: PZA resistance was identified in 1.8% (50 of 2,842) of mycobacterial isolates tested, corresponding to a case rate of 0.3 per 100,000 in the population. Monoresistant PZA infection was associated with the Hispanic population ([OR], 6.3; 95% [CI], 1.97-20.16) and 48% of cases were due to M. bovis. Infection with monoresistant PZA was also associated with extrapulmonary disease ([OR], 6.0; 95% [CI], 2.70-13.26). There was no statistically significant difference between treatment failure and mortality rates in patients infected with PZA monoresistance compared to pansusceptible controls (4% vs. 8%, p = 0.51), or those with PZA and MDR resistance (PZA-MDR) compared to MDR controls (18% vs. 29%, p = 0.40). PZA resistance was not associated with M.tb lineage. Conclusions: Across two decades of comprehensive epidemiologic data on tuberculosis in San Francisco County, PZA resistance was uncommon. PZA resistance caused predominantly extrapulmonary disease and was more common in Hispanics compared to other ethnicities, with nearly half the cases attributed to M. bovis. No association was found between PZA monoresistance and M.tb lineage. Treatment outcomes were not adversely influenced by the presence of PZA resistance. © 2014 Budzik et al. Source

Leow M.K.,Senior Consultant | Dalan R.,Consultant | Chee C.B.,Tuberculosis Control Unit | Earnest A.,Quantitative Medicine | And 6 more authors.
Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) confers a higher risk for tuberculosis (TB). Yet, TB screening and chemoprophylaxis for latent TB infection (LTBI) in DM remains controversial. We conducted a cross-sectional study to elucidate LTBI prevalence and longitudinal follow-up to ascertain LTBI to active TB progression rate in DM.METHODS: 220 DM patients without previous TB from the outpatient diabetes clinic of the hospital were enrolled. T-Spot TB, tuberculin-skin-test (TST) and chest radiography (CXR) were performed. LTBI was defined by negative CXR with reactive T-Spot TB. Progression to active TB was confirmed by cross-checking against the TB registry.RESULTS: The prevalence of LTBI was 28.2% (62/220) by reactive T-Spot. None progressed to active TB from 2007-2013. Multivariate analysis revealed that any co-morbidity (p=0.016) was positively associated while metformin (p=0.008) was negatively associated with LTBI.CONCLUSIONS: Over a quarter of DM patients harbor LTBI. While the lack of demonstrable progression to active TB within the follow-up time frame up to this point does not unequivocally support a routine TB screening policy or anti-TB chemoprophylaxis for LTBI in a diabetic population for now, this preliminary evidence needs re-evaluation with longer follow-up of this enrolled cohort over the next decade. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York. Source

Kang J.S.L.,National University of Singapore | Cherian A.,Tuberculosis Control Unit | Gan S.H.,Tuberculosis Control Unit | Chee C.B.E.,Tuberculosis Control Unit | And 3 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2010

The tuberculin skin test (TST) using purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is traditionally used to diagnose latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI). However, LTBI diagnosis by peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) interferon (IFN)-γ responses to M. tuberculosis-specific antigens, early secreted antigenic target 6 kDa (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein (CFP)-10 has greater specificity. We investigated the difference in antimycobacterium cellular immunity in TB contacts who were strong TST reactors but nonresponsive to the ESAT-6/CFP-10 assay compared with those with concordant results. Healthy TB contacts were tested using the above two assays and mycobacterium survival was measured after co-culture of infected macrophages with their PBMCs. Whether PPD reactivity was tested by TST or by PBMC-specific IFN-γ responses, strongly PPD-reactive TB contacts without ESAT-6/CFP-10 responsiveness showed significantly better mycobacterium inhibition activity than ESAT-6/CFP-10-responsive TB contacts with the same PPD reactivity. In the former group, stronger PPD reactivity was associated with improved mycobacterium killing, whereas ESAT-6/CFP-10 responders showed the opposite result. PPD-reactive ESAT-6/CFP-10-nonresponsive TB contacts in our population may have had protective immunity related to prior mycobacterium exposure. ESAT-6/CFP10-responsive TB contacts are more likely to have LTBI and, in this group, strong PPD reactivity may paradoxically be associated with poor mycobactericidal activity. Copyright©ERS 2010. Source

Singhal A.,Agency for Science, Technology and Research Singapore | Jie L.,Agency for Science, Technology and Research Singapore | Kumar P.,Agency for Science, Technology and Research Singapore | Hong G.S.,Tuberculosis Control Unit | And 17 more authors.
Science Translational Medicine | Year: 2014

The global burden of tuberculosis (TB) morbidity and mortality remains immense. A potential new approach to TB therapy is to augment protective host immune responses. We report that the antidiabetic drug metformin (MET) reduces the intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in an AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-Activated protein kinase)-dependent manner. MET controls the growth of drug-resistant Mtb strains, increases production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, and facilitates phagosome-lysosome fusion. In Mtb-infected mice, use of MET ameliorated lung pathology, reduced chronic inflammation, and enhanced the specific immune response and the efficacy of conventional TB drugs. Moreover, in two separate human cohorts, MET treatment was associated with improved control of Mtb infection and decreased disease severity. Collectively, these data indicate that MET is a promising candidate host-Adjunctive therapy for improving the effective treatment of TB. Source

Bhat P.G.,Tuberculosis Control Unit | Kumar A.M.V.,Operational Research Unit | Naik B.,Tuberculosis Control Unit | Satyanarayana S.,Operational Research Unit | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is the most serious form of malnutrition affecting children under-five and is associated with many infectious diseases including Tuberculosis (TB). In India, nutritional rehabilitation centres (NRCs) have been recently established for the management of SAM including TB. The National TB Programme (NTP) in India has introduced a revised algorithm for diagnosing paediatric TB. We aimed to examine whether NRCs adhered to these guidelines in diagnosing TB among SAM children. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving review of records of all SAM children identified by health workers during 2012 in six tehsils (sub-districts) with NRCs (population: 1.8 million) of Karnataka, India. Results: Of 1927 identified SAM children, 1632 (85%) reached NRCs. Of them, 1173 (72%) were evaluated for TB and 19(2%) were diagnosed as TB. Of 1173, diagnostic algorithm was followed in 460 (37%). Among remaining 763 not evaluated as per algorithm, tuberculin skin test alone was conducted in 307 (41%), chest radiography alone in 99 (13%) and no investigations in 337 (45%). The yield of TB was higher among children evaluated as per algorithm (4%) as compared to those who were not (0.3%) (OR: 15.3 [95%CI: 3.5-66.3]). Several operational challenges including non-availability of a full-time paediatrician, non-functioning X-ray machine due to frequent power cuts, use of tuberculin with suboptimal strength and difficulties in adhering to a complex diagnostic algorithm were observed. Conclusion: This study showed that TB screening in NRCs was sub-optimal in Karnataka. Some children did not reach the NRC, while many of those who did were either not or sub-optimally evaluated for TB. This study pointed to a number of operational issues that need to be addressed if this collaborative strategy is to identify more TB cases amongst malnourished children in India. © 2013 Bhat et al. Source

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