TU Munich | Date: 2015-06-22
Contacting apparatus for contacting an energy storage cell (1) comprising at least one printed circuit board (5) which is provided for discharging the electrical energy stored in the energy storage cell (1), wherein at least one electric pole of the energy storage cell (1) is pressed by a releasable mechanical connection (7) with a specific contact pressing force against an electrically conductive layer (5c) of the at least one printed circuit board (5) which is located on a front side of the at least one printed circuit board (5) facing the energy storage cell (1).
TU Munich | Date: 2016-11-28
A method is provided for demodulation of an analog receive signal carrying information, wherein a number of more than two analog signals is formed from the receive signal in separate channels such that the receive signal is multiplied in each case by a period function, the phase thereof respectively differing in the channels, and wherein the multiple signals are each low-pass filtered.
van Griensven M.,TU Munich
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews | Year: 2015
Bone defects do not heal in 5-10% of the fractures. In order to enhance bone regeneration, drug delivery systems are needed. They comprise a scaffold with or without inducing factors and/or cells. To test these drug delivery systems before application in patients, they finally need to be tested in animal models. The choice of animal model depends on the main research question; is a functional or mechanistic evaluation needed? Furthermore, which type of bone defects are investigated: load-bearing (i.e. orthopedic) or non-load-bearing (i.e. craniomaxillofacial)? This determines the type of model and in which type of animal. The experiments need to be set-up using the 3R principle and must be reported following the ARRIVE guidelines. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Grienberger C.,TU Munich |
Konnerth A.,TU Munich
Neuron | Year: 2012
Calcium ions generate versatile intracellular signals that control key functions in all types of neurons. Imaging calcium in neurons is particularly important because calcium signals exert their highly specific functions in well-defined cellular subcompartments. In this Primer, we briefly review the general mechanisms of neuronal calcium signaling. We then introduce the calcium imaging devices, including confocal and two-photon microscopy as well as miniaturized devices that are used in freely moving animals. We provide an overview of the classical chemical fluorescent calcium indicators and of the protein-based genetically encoded calcium indicators. Using application examples, we introduce new developments in the field, such as calcium imaging in awake, behaving animals and the use of calcium imaging for mapping single spine sensory inputs in cortical neurons in vivo. We conclude by providing an outlook on the prospects of calcium imaging for the analysis of neuronal signaling and plasticity in various animal models. Grienberger and Konnerth explore the benefits and uses of calcium imaging tools and resources and their use in vivo, including discussion of confocal and two-photon microscopy, miniaturized devices used in freely moving animals, and chemical and genetically encoded calcium indicators. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Balmayor E.R.,TU Munich
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews | Year: 2015
Molecules such as growth factors, peptides and small molecules can guide cellular behavior and are thus important for tissue engineering. They are rapidly emerging as promising compounds for the regeneration of tissues of the musculoskeletal system. Growth factors have disadvantages such as high cost, short half-life, supraphysiological amounts needed, etc. Therefore, small molecules may be an alternative. These molecules have been discovered using high throughput screening. Small osteoinductive molecules exhibit several advantages over growth factors owing to their small sizes, such as high stability and non-immunogenicity. These molecules may stimulate directly signaling pathways that are important for osteogenesis. However, systemic application doesn't induce osteogenesis in most cases. Therefore, local administration is needed. This may be achieved by using a bone graft material providing additional osteoconductive properties. These graft materials can also act by themselves as a delivery matrix for targeted and local delivery. Furthermore, vascularization is necessary in the process of osteogenesis. Many of the small molecules are also capable of promoting vascularization of the tissue to be regenerated. Thus, in this review, special attention is given to molecules that are capable of inducing both angiogenesis and osteogenesis simultaneously. Finally, more recent preclinical and clinical uses in bone regeneration of those molecules are described, highlighting the needs for the clinical translation of these promising compounds. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Czopka T.,TU Munich
GLIA | Year: 2016
Myelin is the multi-layered membrane that surrounds most axons and is produced by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). In addition to its important role in enabling rapid nerve conduction, it has become clear in recent years that myelin plays additional vital roles in CNS function. Myelinating oligodendrocytes provide metabolic support to axons and active myelination is even involved in regulating forms of learning and memory formation. However, there are still large gaps in our understanding of how myelination by oligodendrocytes is regulated. The small tropical zebrafish has become an increasingly popular model organism to investigate many aspects of nervous system formation, function, and regeneration. This is mainly due to two approaches for which the zebrafish is an ideally suited vertebrate model-(1) in vivo live cell imaging using vital dyes and genetically encoded reporters, and (2) gene and target discovery using unbiased screens. This review summarizes how the use of zebrafish has helped understand mechanisms of oligodendrocyte behavior and myelination in vivo and discusses the potential use of zebrafish to shed light on important future questions relating to myelination in the context of CNS development, function and repair. GLIA 2016;64:333-349 Main points: The mechanisms of central nervous system myelination are not well understood. Zebrafish are an attractive vertebrate model for live cell imaging and target discovery to address how myelination by oligodendrocytes is regulated in vivo. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lang K.,Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology |
Chin J.W.,TU Munich
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014
A range of chemoselective reactions have been used to label isolated biomolecules, cell surface biomolecules, and intracellular biomolecules at physiological temperatures and pressures. Many of these reactions proceed under aqueous conditions and produce nontoxic or no byproducts. The rates of these chemoselective reactions span 9 orders of magnitude and the recent development of rapid reactions promises applications of labeling to previously inaccessible biological problems. The development of reactions that are chemoselective and rapid under biologically relevant conditions is being rapidly translated into approaches for selective protein labeling in cells and animals via genetic code expansion. Although genetic code expansion approaches commonly direct unnatural amino acid incorporation in response to the amber codon, there appears to be minimal background labeling resulting from incorporation and labeling at endogenous amber codons in E. coli.
Muller-Buschbaum P.,TU Munich
Advanced Materials | Year: 2014
Grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS) provides unique insights into the morphology of active materials and thin film layers used in organic photovoltaic devices. With grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) the molecular arrangement of the material is probed. GIWAXS is sensitive to the crystalline parts and allows for the determination of the crystal structure and the orientation of the crystalline regions with respect to the electrodes. With grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) the nano-scale structure inside the films is probed. As GISAXS is sensitive to length scales from nanometers to several hundred nanometers, all relevant length scales of organic solar cells are detectable. After an introduction to GISAXS and GIWAXS, selected examples for application of both techniques to active layer materials are reviewed. The particular focus is on conjugated polymers, such as poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Ruland J.,TU Munich
Cell | Year: 2014
Microbial and danger signals result in inflammasome activation and release of inflammatory cytokines through mechanisms that remain elusive. Cai et al. and Lu et al. show that triggering of inflammasome sensors induces prion-like polymerization of the adaptor ASC into filaments. These structures function as platforms for inflammatory cytokine production and represent a unified mechanism for inflammasome assembly. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Schmidtchen F.P.,TU Munich
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2010
Hosting anions addresses the widely spread molecular recognition event of negatively charged species by dedicated organic compounds in condensed phases at equilibrium. The experimentally accessible energetic features comprise the entire system including the solvent, any buffers, background electrolytes or other components introduced for e.g. analysis. The deconvolution of all these interaction types and their dependence on subtle structural variation is required to arrive at a structure-energy correlation that may serve as a guide in receptor construction. The focus on direct host-guest interactions (lock-and-key complementarity) that have dominated the binding concepts of artificial receptors in the past must be widened in order to account for entropic contributions which constitute very significant fractions of the total free energy of interaction. Including entropy necessarily addresses the ambiguity and fuzziness of the host-guest structural ensemble and requires the appreciation of the fact that most liquid phases possess distinct structures of their own. Apparently, it is the perturbation of the intrinsic solvent structure occurring upon association that rules ion binding in polar media where ions are soluble and abundant. Rather than specifying peculiar structural elements useful in anion binding this critical review attempts an illumination of the concepts and individual energetic contributions resulting in the final observation of specific anion recognition (95 references). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.