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Munich, Germany

The Technische Universität München is a research university with campuses in Munich, Garching and Freising-Weihenstephan. It is a member of TU9, an incorporated society of the largest and most notable German institutes of technology. Wikipedia.

Lang K.,Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology | Chin J.W.,TU Munich
Chemical Reviews

A range of chemoselective reactions have been used to label isolated biomolecules, cell surface biomolecules, and intracellular biomolecules at physiological temperatures and pressures. Many of these reactions proceed under aqueous conditions and produce nontoxic or no byproducts. The rates of these chemoselective reactions span 9 orders of magnitude and the recent development of rapid reactions promises applications of labeling to previously inaccessible biological problems. The development of reactions that are chemoselective and rapid under biologically relevant conditions is being rapidly translated into approaches for selective protein labeling in cells and animals via genetic code expansion. Although genetic code expansion approaches commonly direct unnatural amino acid incorporation in response to the amber codon, there appears to be minimal background labeling resulting from incorporation and labeling at endogenous amber codons in E. coli. Source

Hagler P.,TU Munich
Physics Reports

This is a review of hadron structure physics from lattice QCD. Throughout this report, we place emphasis on the contribution of lattice results to our understanding of a number of fundamental physics questions related to, for example, the origin and distribution of the charge, magnetization, momentum and spin of hadrons. Following an introduction to some of the most important hadron structure observables, we summarize the methods and techniques employed for their calculation in lattice QCD. We briefly discuss the status of relevant chiral perturbation theory calculations needed for controlled extrapolations of the lattice results to the physical point. In the main part of this report, we give an overview of lattice calculations on hadron form factors, moments of (generalized) parton distributions, moments of hadron distribution amplitudes, and other important hadron structure observables. Whenever applicable, we compare with results from experiment and phenomenology, taking into account systematic uncertainties in the lattice computations. Finally, we discuss promising results based on new approaches, ideas and techniques, and close with remarks on future perspectives of the field. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. Source

Grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS) provides unique insights into the morphology of active materials and thin film layers used in organic photovoltaic devices. With grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) the molecular arrangement of the material is probed. GIWAXS is sensitive to the crystalline parts and allows for the determination of the crystal structure and the orientation of the crystalline regions with respect to the electrodes. With grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) the nano-scale structure inside the films is probed. As GISAXS is sensitive to length scales from nanometers to several hundred nanometers, all relevant length scales of organic solar cells are detectable. After an introduction to GISAXS and GIWAXS, selected examples for application of both techniques to active layer materials are reviewed. The particular focus is on conjugated polymers, such as poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Schmoller K.M.,TU Munich
Nature communications

Nonlinear deformations can irreversibly alter the mechanical properties of materials. Most soft materials, such as rubber and living tissues, display pronounced softening when cyclically deformed. Here we show that, in contrast, reconstituted networks of crosslinked, bundled actin filaments harden when subject to cyclical shear. As a consequence, they exhibit a mechano-memory where a significant stress barrier is generated at the maximum of the cyclic shear strain. This unique response is crucially determined by the network architecture: at lower crosslinker concentrations networks do not harden, but soften showing the classic Mullins effect known from rubber-like materials. By simultaneously performing macrorheology and confocal microscopy, we show that cyclic shearing results in structural reorganization of the network constituents such that the maximum applied strain is encoded into the network architecture. Source

Schmidtchen F.P.,TU Munich
Chemical Society Reviews

Hosting anions addresses the widely spread molecular recognition event of negatively charged species by dedicated organic compounds in condensed phases at equilibrium. The experimentally accessible energetic features comprise the entire system including the solvent, any buffers, background electrolytes or other components introduced for e.g. analysis. The deconvolution of all these interaction types and their dependence on subtle structural variation is required to arrive at a structure-energy correlation that may serve as a guide in receptor construction. The focus on direct host-guest interactions (lock-and-key complementarity) that have dominated the binding concepts of artificial receptors in the past must be widened in order to account for entropic contributions which constitute very significant fractions of the total free energy of interaction. Including entropy necessarily addresses the ambiguity and fuzziness of the host-guest structural ensemble and requires the appreciation of the fact that most liquid phases possess distinct structures of their own. Apparently, it is the perturbation of the intrinsic solvent structure occurring upon association that rules ion binding in polar media where ions are soluble and abundant. Rather than specifying peculiar structural elements useful in anion binding this critical review attempts an illumination of the concepts and individual energetic contributions resulting in the final observation of specific anion recognition (95 references). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

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