The Technische Universität Darmstadt , commonly referred to as TU Darmstadt is a research university in the city of Darmstadt, Germany. It was founded in 1877 and received the right to award doctorates in 1899. In 1882 it was the first university in the world to set up a chair in electrical engineering, in 1883 the first faculty for electrical engineering was founded there. Wikipedia.
TU Darmstadt | Date: 2016-07-18
A method is described for determining the size of a transparent particle (2), wherein the particle (2) is illuminated with light from a light source (6), wherein using a radiation detector (7) a time-resolved intensity curve of light from the light source (6) scattered on the particle (2) is measured at a preselectable scattering angle _(s), wherein characteristic scattered light peaks are determined in the intensity curve, and wherein the size of the particle (2) is determined on the basis of the time difference between two scattered light peaks, characterized in that, with the help of two radiation detectors (7) or light sources (6), a first and a second time-resolved intensity curve of scattered light, scattered on the particle (2) in the forward direction, are measured; a transmission peak (12) and a reflection peak (11) are determined from the first intensity curve and from the second intensity curve; a first time difference between the transmission peaks (12) is determined, and a second time difference between the reflection peaks (11) is determined; a characteristic variable is determined from the ratio of the first time difference and the second time difference; and a size determination is performed for the particles (2) for which the characteristic variable corresponds to a preselectable value. (FIG. 3)
TU Darmstadt | Date: 2017-07-26
The invention relates to a breaking chamber for measuring a hardness of a test subject, comprising a fixed jaw and a pressing jaw situated opposite said fixed jaw. The breaking chamber has a base, wherein the base is formed by a part of a plate element. At least one drive is provided which is connected to the plate element and by way of which the plate element can be caused to perform firstly and secondly directed oscillations, whereby the plate element can be caused to vibrate. If the plate element is caused to vibrate, the test subject can be positioned exactly in the breaking chamber.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NMP-23-2015 | Award Amount: 7.15M | Year: 2016
The demand for lower dependency on critical raw materials (CRM) such as rare earths (RE) is not only a European but a global problem that demands immediate action. The purpose of this project is to exploit advanced theoretical and computation methods together with state-of-the-art materials preparation and characterization techniques, to develop the next generation RE-free/lean permanent magnets (PM). The material design will be driven by automated large computational screening of new and novel intermetallic compounds with uniaxial structure in order to achieve high saturation magnetisation, magnetocrystalline anisotropy and Curie temperature. The simulations will be based on a primary screening detecting the mechanisms that give rise to distorted phases and stabilize them, by adding doping atoms as stabilizers. In a further computation on successfully synthetized compounds, micromagnetic calculations will be used in order to design the optimal microstructure for the given phases that will maximise the coercivity needed for a PM. Extensive experimental processing and characterisation of the selected phases will result in a first proof of principle of the feasibility of NOVAMAG PMs. A multidisciplinary team of magnet experts consisting of chemists, material scientists, physicists and engineers from academia, national labs and industry is assembled to undertake a concerted, systematic and innovative study to overcome the problems involved and develop the next generation RE-free/lean PMs. Currently the demand for these PM s is even higher with the emerging markets of hybrid/electric vehicles and wind mill power systems. The proposed project will provide the fundamental innovations and breakthroughs which will have a major impact in re-establishing the Europe as a leader in the science, technology and commercialization of this very important class of materials and help decrease our dependence on China, which will in turn improve the competitiveness of EU manufacturers.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: DS-03-2015 | Award Amount: 7.02M | Year: 2016
In recent years, the majority of the worlds Critical Infrastructures CIs evolved to become more flexible, cost efficient and able to offer better services and conditions for business opportunities. Towards this evolution, CIs and companies offering CI services had to adopt many of the recent advances of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) field. This adaptation however, was rather hasty and without thorough evaluation of its impact on security. The result was to leave CIs vulnerable to a who the new set of threats and attacks that impose high levels of risk to the public safety, economy and welfare of the population. In so far, the main approach to protect CIs is to handle them as comprehensive entities and offer them a complete solution for their overall infrastructures and systems (IT&OT departments). However Complete CI protection solutions exist in the form of individual products from individual companies. These products integrate only and tools/solutions designed by the same company, thus offering limited technical solutions. The main aim of CIPSEC is to create a unified security framework that orchestrates state-of-the-art heterogeneous security products to offer high levels of protection in IT (information technology) and OT (operational technology) departments of CIs. As part of this framework CIPSEC will offer a complete security ecosystem of additional services that can support the proposed technical solutions to work reliably and at professional quality. These services include vulnerability tests and recommendations, key personnel training courses, public-private partnerships (PPPs) forensics analysis, standardization and protection against cascading effects. All solutions and services will be validated in three pilots performed in three different CI environments (transportation, health, environment). CIPSEC will also develop a marketing strategy for optimal positioning of its solutions in the CI security market.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SGA-RIA | Phase: FETFLAGSHIP | Award Amount: 89.00M | Year: 2016
Understanding the human brain is one of the greatest scientific challenges of our time. Such an understanding can provide profound insights into our humanity, leading to fundamentally new computing technologies, and transforming the diagnosis and treatment of brain disorders. Modern ICT brings this prospect within reach. The HBP Flagship Initiative (HBP) thus proposes a unique strategy that uses ICT to integrate neuroscience data from around the world, to develop a unified multi-level understanding of the brain and diseases, and ultimately to emulate its computational capabilities. The goal is to catalyze a global collaborative effort. During the HBPs first Specific Grant Agreement (SGA1), the HBP Core Project will outline the basis for building and operating a tightly integrated Research Infrastructure, providing HBP researchers and the scientific Community with unique resources and capabilities. Partnering Projects will enable independent research groups to expand the capabilities of the HBP Platforms, in order to use them to address otherwise intractable problems in neuroscience, computing and medicine in the future. In addition, collaborations with other national, European and international initiatives will create synergies, maximizing returns on research investment. SGA1 covers the detailed steps that will be taken to move the HBP closer to achieving its ambitious Flagship Objectives.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-17-2015 | Award Amount: 9.63M | Year: 2016
The share of renewable energy is growing rapidly driven by the objective to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The amount of electric power which can be supplied to the grid depends on the time of the day and weather conditions. A conventional fleet of thermal power plants is required to compensate for these fluctuations before large scale energy storage technologies will be mature and economically viable. All power market projections expect this to be the case for the next 50 years at least. For a strong expansion of renewables, this fleet has to operate flexibly at competitive cost. Current power plants cannot fill this role immediately without impeding their efficiency and engine lifetime through increased wear and damage induced by the higher number of (shorter) operating/loading cycles. New technologies need to be introduced to balance demand peaks with renewable output fluctuations at minimal fuel consumption and emissions without negative effects on cycling operation. The FLEXTURBINE partners have developed a medium to long term technology roadmap addressing future and existing power plants. The FLEXTURBINE project presented hereafter is the first step in such technology roadmap and consists of: (1) new solutions for extended operating ranges to predict and control flutter, (2) improved sealing and bearing designs to increase turbine lifetime and efficiency by reducing degradation/damages, and (3) an improved lifecycle management through better control and prediction of critical parts to improve competitive costs by more flexible service intervals and planned downtime, and by reducing unplanned outages. In all areas, individual technologies will be developed from TRL 3 to TRL 4-6. FLEXTURBINE brings together the main European turbine manufacturers, renowned research institutes and universities. It involves plant and transmission system operators to include user feedback and to prepare the take-up of the FLEXTURBINE technologies in power plants world-wide.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: ECSEL-IA | Phase: ECSEL-17-2015 | Award Amount: 64.82M | Year: 2016
ENABLE-S3 will pave the way for accelerated application of highly automated and autonomous systems in the mobility domains automotive, aerospace, rail and maritime as well as in the health care domain. Virtual testing, verification and coverage-oriented test selection methods will enable validation with reasonable efforts. The resulting validation framework will ensure Europeans Industry competitiveness in the global race of automated systems with an expected market potential of 60B in 2025. Project results will be used to propose standardized validation procedures for highly automated systems (ACPS). The technical objectives addressed are: 1. Provision of a test and validation framework that proves the functionality, safety and security of ACPS with at least 50% less test effort than required in classical testing. 2. Promotion of a new technique for testing of automated systems with physical sensor signal stimuli generators, which will be demonstrated for at least 3 physical stimuli generators. 3. Raising significantly the level of dependability of automated systems due to provision of a holistic test and validation platform and systematic coverage measures, which will reduce the probability of malfunction behavior of automated systems to 10E-9/h. 4. Provision of a validation environment for rapid re-qualification, which will allow reuse of validation scenarios in at least 3 development stages. 5. Establish open standards to speed up the adoption of the new validation tools and methods for ACPS. 6. Enabling safe, secure and functional ACPS across domains. 7. Creation of an eco-system for the validation and verification of automated systems in the European industry. ENABLE-S3 is strongly industry-driven. Realistic and relevant industrial use-cases from smart mobility and smart health will define the requirements to be addressed and assess the benefits of the technological progress.
Lichtenthaler F.W.,TU Darmstadt
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2011
The preparatively efficient conversion of mono or disaccharides into 2-oxo- and 2-oximinoglycosyl bromides that are effective glycosyl donors for the expedient construction of β-D-mannose-, β-L-rhamnose-, and β-D-mannosamine-containing oligosaccharides is examined. When the ulosyl bromides is exposed in the presence of insoluble silver salts to bifunctional acceptors such as vicinal diols or their amino and thio analogues, the essentially β-specific glycosidation is followed by intramolecular hemiketalization with the 2-carbonyl. The most commonly used approach for C-extensions via glycosyl radicals is their generation from glycosyl bromides with tributyltin hydride and AIBN as initiators and treatment with electron-deficient alkenes. C-Extensions of ulosyl bromides via nucleophilic anomeric carbons appear to be more effective, as their α-bromocarbonyl functionality are apt to yield to Reformatsky-type conditions.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETPROACT-01-2016 | Award Amount: 7.98M | Year: 2017
A novel concept for a photo-electro-catalytic (PEC) cell able to directly convert water and CO2 into fuels and chemicals (CO2 reduction) and oxygen (water oxidation) using exclusively solar energy will be designed, built, validated, and optimized. The cell will be constructed from cheap multifunction photo-electrodes able to transform sun irradiation into an electrochemical potential difference (expected efficiency > 12%); ultra-thin layers and nanoparticles of metal or metal oxide catalysts for both half-cell reactions (expected efficiency > 90%); and stateof- the-art membrane technology for gas/liquid/products separation to match a theoretical target solar to fuels efficiency above 10%. All parts will be assembled to maximize performance in pH > 7 solution and moderate temperatures (50-80 C) as to take advantage of the high stability and favorable kinetics of constituent materials in these conditions. Achieving this goal we will improve the state-of-the-art of all components for the sake of cell integration: 1) Surface sciences: metal and metal oxide catalysts (crystals or nanostructures grown on metals or silicon) will be characterized for water oxidation and CO2 reduction through atomically resolved experiments (scanning probe microscopy) and spatially-averaged surface techniques including surface analysis before, after and in operando electrochemical reactions. Activity and performance will be correlated to composition, thickness, structure and support as to determine the optimum parameters for device integration. 2) Photoelectrodes: This unique surface knowledge will be transferred to the processing of catalytic nanostructures deposited on semiconductors through different methods to match the surface chemistry results through viable up-scaling processes. Multiple thermodynamic and kinetic techniques will be used to characterize and optimize the performance of the interfaces with spectroscopy and photo-electrochemistry tools to identify best matching between light absorbers and chemical catalysts along optimum working conditions (pH, temperature, pressure). 3) Modeling: Materials, catalysts and processes will be modeled with computational methods as a pivotal tool to understand and to bring photo-catalytic-electrodes to their theoretical limits in terms of performance. The selected optimum materials and environmental conditions as defined from these parallel studies will be integrated into a PEC cell prototype. This design will include ion exchange membranes and gas diffusion electrodes for product separation. Performance will be validated in real working conditions under sun irradiation to assess the technological and industrial relevance of our A-LEAF cell.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-23-2016 | Award Amount: 10.00M | Year: 2016
The GEMex project is a complementary effort of a European consortium with a corresponding consortium from Mexico, who submitted an equivalent proposal for cooperation. The joint effort is based on three pillars: 1 Resource assessment at two unconventional geothermal sites, for EGS development at Acoculco and for a super-hot resource near Los Humeros. This part will focus on understanding the tectonic evolution, the fracture distribution and hydrogeology of the respective region, and on predicting in-situ stresses and temperatures at depth. 2 Reservoir characterization using techniques and approaches developed at conventional geothermal sites, including novel geophysical and geological methods to be tested and refined for their application at the two project sites: passive seismic data will be used to apply ambient noise correlation methods, and to study anisotropy by coupling surface and volume waves; newly collected electromagnetic data will be used for joint inversion with the seismic data. For the interpretation of these data, high-pressure/ high-temperature laboratory experiments will be performed to derive the parameters determined on rock samples from Mexico or equivalent materials. 3 Concepts for Site Development: all existing and newly collected information will be applied to define drill paths, to recommend a design for well completion including suitable material selection, and to investigate optimum stimulation and operation procedures for safe and economic exploitation with control of undesired side effects. These steps will include appropriate measures and recommendations for public acceptance and outreach as well as for the monitoring and control of environmental impact. The consortium was formed from the EERA joint programme of geothermal energy in regular and long-time communication with the partners from Mexico. That way a close interaction of the two consortia is guaranteed and will continue beyond the duration of the project.