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Bibra Lake, Australia

Kreitals N.M.,University of Western Australia | Watling R.J.,University of Western Australia | Watling R.J.,TSW Analytical Pty Ltd
Forensic Science International | Year: 2014

Chemical signatures within the environment vary between regions as a result of climatological, geochemical and anthropogenic influences. These variations are incorporated into the region's geology, soils, water and vegetation; ultimately making their way through the food chain to higher level organisms. Because the variation in chemical signatures between areas is significant, a specific knowledge of differences in elemental distribution patterns between, and within populations, could prove beneficial for provenancing animals or animal related products when applied to indigenous and feral faunal populations. The domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) was used as an investigative model to determine the feasibility of using a chemical traceability method for the provenance determination of animal tissue. Samples of pig muscle, tongue, stomach, heart, liver and kidney were collected from known farming areas around Australia. Samples were digested in 1:3 H2O2:HNO3 and their elemental composition determined using solution based Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Pigs from different growing regions in Australia could be distinguished based on the chemical signature of each individual tissue type. Discrimination was possible at a region, state and population level. This investigation demonstrates the potential for multi-element analysis of low genetic variation native and feral species of forensic relevance. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Valentin J.L.,University of Western Australia | Watling R.J.,University of Western Australia | Watling R.J.,TSW Analytical Pty Ltd
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Statistical interpretation of the concentrations of 59 elements, determined using solution based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), was used to establish the provenance of coffee samples from 15 countries across five continents. Data confirmed that the harvest year, degree of ripeness and whether the coffees were green or roasted had little effect on the elemental composition of the coffees. The application of linear discriminant analysis and principal component analysis of the elemental concentrations permitted up to 96.9% correct classification of the coffee samples according to their continent of origin. When samples from each continent were considered separately, up to 100% correct classification of coffee samples into their countries, and plantations of origin was achieved. This research demonstrates the potential of using elemental composition, in combination with statistical classification methods, for accurate provenance establishment of coffee. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

May C.D.,University of Western Australia | May C.D.,TSW Analytical Pty Ltd | Watling R.J.,University of Western Australia | Watling R.J.,TSW Analytical Pty Ltd
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2011

Despite the forensic significance of polycarbonate headlamp lenses, robust analytical protocols to facilitate their discrimination are scarce. In this study, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been applied to the analysis of polycarbonate headlamp lenses with multivariate chemometrics techniques utilized to facilitate interpretation of the data. The analytical protocol involves the analysis of 46 analytes on material comprising the exterior surface of the lens. Using this data, it was found that although minor variation exists within a single headlamp lens, discrimination between lenses produced from a single manufacturing plant was still possible using iterative forward stepwise linear discriminant analysis processes. Discrimination between all headlamp lenses, with the exception of some lenses produced on the same day in a single plant, could be achieved using the analytical protocol. Furthermore, an interpretational protocol has been developed that has successfully classified all tested headlamp lens samples, within the discrimination limits of the analytical method. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

Martin A.E.,University of Western Australia | Watling R.J.,University of Western Australia | Watling R.J.,TSW Analytical Pty Ltd | Lee G.S.,University of Western Australia | Lee G.S.,TSW Analytical Pty Ltd
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Concentrations were determined for 56 elements in 1397 samples of Australian wine, using solution based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and emission spectroscopy. Interpretation of the data indicated that, within red and within white wines, the vintage and grape variety had little effect on the multi-element composition of the wine, although significant differences were observed between red and white wines. Wine growing regions from within different Australian states were generally easily discriminated using linear discriminant analysis, and good discrimination was typically observed between regions from within the same state. However, the close proximity of several regions within South Australia led to some difficulties when trying to discriminate between wines from these regions. This research has demonstrated the possibility of using the elemental composition of Australian wines to discriminate between wines grown in different regions and the potential of using this technique for accurate provenance establishment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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