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Horikawa Y.,Kyoto University | Konakahara N.,Kyoto University | Imai T.,Kyoto University | Kentaro A.,Kyoto University | And 2 more authors.
Polymer Degradation and Stability | Year: 2013

The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose I achieves almost complete digestion when sufficient enzyme loading as much as 20 mg/g-substrate is applied. However, the yield of digestion reaches the limit when the enzyme dosage is decreased to 2 mg/g-substrate. Therefore, we have performed three pretreatments such as mercerization, dissolution into phosphoric acid and EDA treatment. Transformation into cellulose II hydrate by mercerization and dissolution into phosphoric acid were not sufficient because substrate changed to highly crystalline structure during saccharification. On the other hand, in the case of crystalline conversion of cellulose I to IIII by EDA, almost perfect digestion was achieved even in enzyme loading as small as 0.5 mg/g-substrate, furthermore, hydrolyzed residue was typical cellulose I. The structural analysis of substrate after saccharification provides an insight into relationships between cellulose crystalline property and cellulase toward better enzymatic digestion. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Horikawa Y.,Kyoto University | Imai T.,Kyoto University | Takada R.,Kyoto University | Watanabe T.,Kyoto University | And 3 more authors.
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

We report a simple analytical procedure combining near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with multivariate analysis to detect the saccharification efficiency of pretreated rice straw. Three types of sample preparation methods were tested to develop a powerful calibration model, with the disk sample used as the standard protocol. From the spectra dataset of NaOH-treated biomass, we obtained a good calibration for the saccharification ratio and some major structural components by partial least-squares regression. Adding dataset from hot water and dilute sulfuric acid pretreatments to NaOH sample dataset, an acceptable calibration model to predict the saccharification ratio as well as the glucose, xylose, and lignin contents was generated. NIR has a great potential for rapid screening of saccharification efficiency of pretreated biomass, which would allows us to control the quality of processing toward better bioethanol production. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

Horikawa Y.,Kyoto University | Imai T.,Kyoto University | Takada R.,Kyoto University | Watanabe T.,Kyoto University | And 3 more authors.
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

In this paper, we report the combination of a near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic method with multivariate analysis in order to develop a calibration model of the saccharification ratio of chemically pretreated Erianthus. The regression models clearly depend on the NIR spectral regions, and the information of CH and aromatic framework vibrations contributed most effectively to the alkaline dataset. From interpretations of the regression coefficient, lignin and cellulose were negatively and positively correlated with the saccharification ratio, respectively, and this result was supported by the data from wet chemical analysis. A more complex dataset was obtained from varied chemical pretreatments; here, the saccharification ratio was either small or had no linear correlation with each structural monocomponent. These results enabled the successful construction of the PLS regression model. NIR spectroscopy can be a rapid screening method for the saccharification ratio, and furthermore, can provide information of the key factors influencing the realization of more efficient enzymatic accessibility. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

Horikawa Y.,Kyoto University | Imai M.,Kyoto University | Kanai K.,Kyoto University | Imai T.,Kyoto University | And 4 more authors.
Biochemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2015

This study reports a method that combines near-infrared (NIR) measurements with multivariate analysis to predict the saccharification efficiency of hydrothermally pretreated Eucalyptus globulus during ethanol conversion. Optimization of the NIR data with or without spectral treatment determined the best calibration model in the region 10000-4000cm-1 of the original spectra, with an RMSEP of 2.08% and Rp 2 of 0.99. By investigating the regression coefficient to understand the key regions and chemical components, for original and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC)-treated spectra, the water absorption and higher wavenumber regions were important. For the second derivative spectra, the regression model was constructed based on the CH overtone vibrations (6050-5500cm-1). The regression coefficient demonstrated that the removal of hemicellulose resulted in higher lignin content, which might affect the biomass properties in terms of water absorption and enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis evaluated by dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method. For a higher throughput system, aqueous sample analysis was performed using an immersion probe equipped with an InGaAs detector, which generated an acceptable calibration model having RMSEP of 4.25% and Rp 2 of 0.94. These results show the great potential of NIR spectroscopy for achieving fast, accurate, and nondestructive analysis, and its highly adaptability for maintaining an ethanol bioconversion system.TGS, triglycine sulfate. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Sai H.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Matsui T.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Bidiville A.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Koida T.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings | Year: 2013

Periodically textured back reflectors with hexagonal dimple arrays are applied to thin-film microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) solar cells for enhancing light trapping. The period and aspect ratio of the honeycomb textures have a big impact on the photovoltaic performance. When the textures have a moderate aspect ratio, the optimum period for obtaining a high short circuit current density (JSC) is found to be equal to or slightly larger than the cell thickness. If the cell thickness exceeds the texture period, the cell surface tends to be flattened and texture-induced defects are generated, which constrain the improvement in JSC. Based on these findings, we have fabricated optimized μc-Si:H cells achieving a high active-area efficiency exceeding 11% and a JSC of 30 mA/cm2. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

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