Tsukuba Center Inc.

Tsukuba, Japan

Tsukuba Center Inc.

Tsukuba, Japan
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Goto K.,Waseda University | Maemura H.,Tsukuba Center Inc. | Takamatsu K.,Ryutsu Keizai University | Ishii N.,University of Tokyo
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2011

Intramuscular carnosine buffers protons (H+) in skeletal muscle. We examined the effects of supplementation with chicken breast meat extract (CBEX) containing carnosine and anserine on hormonal responses to resistance exercise. Twenty-two men were assigned to a CBEX drink group (CBEX containingtotal 2 g of carnosine and anserine) (n = 14) or a placebo drink group (n = 8). The subjects ingested the prescribed drink (100 mL) twice daily for 30 days without physical training. Before and after the supplementation period, the subjects completed 5 sets of bilateral knee extension exercises (with a 90-s rest between sets). The magnitude of the increase in exerciseinduced free testosterone did not change significantly after supplementation ineither group. The blood lactate response to exercise was attenuated after supplementation in both groups (p < 0.05). In the CBEX group, the plasmaepinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations after exercise were significantly lower after supplementation (p < 0.05). The serum growth hormone response to exercise was also reduced in the CBEX group after supplementation (delta value: 5.4±1.9 ng/mL [pre] vs. 1.6±0.5 ng/mL [post],p = 0.05). No significant differences in exercise-induced strength reduction (fatigue index) were observed in the 2 groups after supplementation. These results suggest that short-term supplementation with CBEX attenuates the exercise-induced epinephrine, norepinephrine, and growth hormone responses. ©2011 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Ariyama K.,Tokyo Research Laboratory | Shinozaki M.,Tokyo Research Laboratory | Kawasaki A.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Ishida Y.,Tsukuba Center Inc.
Analytical Sciences | Year: 2011

A rapid determination method of 87Sr/86Sr and Pb isotope (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, and 208Pb) ratios was applied to determining the geographic origin of grain crops. This new method is more economical in terms of both time and cost compared to conventional methods. We used samples of barley (n = 321), rice (n = 111), and wheat (n = 93) grown in various countries. 87Sr/86Sr versus Sr concentration plots for the barley and wheat showed differences between products from Australia and those from other countries. Graphs of the Pb isotope ratios, comprising 15 two-dimensional plots, gave rise to a particular distribution for each country of production. The presented method showed promise for determining the production countries of grains by using the isotope ratios of Sr and Pb. © 2011 The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry.

Amano T.,Tsukuba Center Inc. | Abe T.,Dai Nippon Printing
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Nanotechnology and Microelectronics | Year: 2015

It is very difficult to predict how multilayer defects known as "phase defects" impact on wafer printed image when embedded in an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask. Therefore, researchers have reported many techniques to analyze and characterize phase defects using scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) and phase defect inspection tools that employ deep ultraviolet or EUV optics. To characterize the phase defects using SPM or other inspection tools, preparing and employing a programmed phase defect mask is a practical way to address the task because the locations, sizes, and quantity of phase defects can be defined to fit experiments. For this study, a programmed phase defect mask was prepared to investigate the size uniformity of the programmed phase defects. The designed phase defects were holes 40-, 50-, 70-, or 80-nm-wide and 4.5-nm-deep. Using a SPM, the phase defects were measured for their depths and widths before and after coating with the multilayer. As a result, variations in the measured depths and widths were much smaller than the defect-to-defect variations, reflecting measurement repeatability. In addition, the variations in the depths and widths of the phase defects after multilayer coating were larger than before coating. It was also found that a given group of phase defects exhibited significant variations in depth and width after multilayer coating, even if they were the same prior to coating. This result indicated that it is difficult to estimate precoating phase defect sizes based on measurements after the multilayer is coated. © 2015 American Vacuum Society.

Fattori A.,University of Bath | Peter L.M.,University of Bath | Wang H.,University of Bath | Miura H.,Tsukuba Center Inc. | Marken F.,University of Bath
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2010

The indoline dyes D102, D131, D149, and D205 have been characterized when adsorbed on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and TiO2 electrode surfaces. Adsorption from 50:50 acetonitrile-tert-butanol onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) allows approximate Langmuirian binding constants of 6.5×104, 2.0×103, 2.0×104, and 1.5×104 mol-1 dm3, respectively, to be determined. Voltammetric data obtained in acetonitrile/0.1 M NBu 4PF6 indicate reversible one-electron oxidation at E mid = 0.94, 0.91, 0.88, and 0.88 V vs Ag/AgCl(3 M KCl), respectively, with dye aggregation (at high coverage) causing additional peak features at more positive potentials. Slow chemical degradation processes and electron transfer catalysis for iodide oxidation were observed for all four oxidized indolinium cations. When adsorbed onto TiO2 nanoparticle films (ca. 9 nm particle diameter and ca. 3 μm thickness on FTO), reversible voltammetric responses with Emid = 1.08, 1.16, 0.92, and 0.95 V vs Ag/AgCl(3 M KCl), respectively, suggest exceptionally fast hole hopping diffusion (with Dapp > 5×10-9 m2 s-1) for adsorbed layers of all four indoline dyes, presumably due to π-π stacking in surface aggregates. Slow dye degradation is shown to affect charge transport via electron hopping. Spectroelectrochemical data for the adsorbed indoline dyes on FTO-TiO2 revealed a red-shift of absorption peaks after oxidation and the presence of a strong charge transfer band in the near-IR region. The implications of the indoline dye reactivity and fast hole mobility for solar cell devices are discussed. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Ibuki M.,Fuji Oil Ltd. | Kovacs-Nolan J.,University of Guelph | Fukui K.,Fuji Oil Ltd. | Kanatani H.,Tsukuba Center Inc. | Mine Y.,University of Guelph
Poultry Science | Year: 2010

β-1,4-Mannobiose (MNB) supplementation has been shown to prevent Salmonella Enteritidis infection in broilers by improving Salmonella Enteritidis clearance and increasing IgA production. This study examined in detail the gut immunomodulatory activity of MNB using microarray and real-time quantitative PCR analysis. One-day-old chicks were orally administered 0.1% (wt/wt) MNB 3 times a week for 28 d. Control birds received vehicle alone. Body weights and fecal IgA levels were monitored weekly. On d 28, spleen and bursa of Fabricius were removed and weights were recorded; samples of ileum, jejunum, cecum, spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius were collected for histological examination; and ileum samples were collected for RNA extraction. No significant difference in BW or organ weights was observed between MNB-treated and untreated control birds, and no histological abnormalities were observed in any of the tissues examined. The MNB-treated chickens had significantly higher levels of fecal IgA over all 4 wk when compared with control birds. Microarray and reverse transcription PCR analysis revealed the upregulation of several genes involved in immune responses, including those involved in antigen recognition, processing and presentation (MHC class I and II), interferon-related genes, and genes involved in host defense. These results provide insight into the mechanism of action of dietary MNB in the intestine and confirm that MNB acts as a potent immune-modulating agent, exerting combined effects on the intestinal immune system. © 2010 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Zhang Y.,Tsukuba Center Inc.
Journal of medicinal food | Year: 2010

We previously reported that chicken collagen hydrolysate (CCH) has strong angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antihypertensive effects on spontaneously hypertensive rats. Here, we investigated the chronic therapy effects of CCH on blood pressure and vascular relaxation in a cardiovascular damage model of Wistar-Kyoto rats induced by N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Following co-treatment with CCH for 4 weeks, the increment of systolic blood pressure was suppressed significantly. At 8 weeks, the vasorelaxation of thoracic aorta increased significantly, and cardiovascular damage was ameliorated. The concentration of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in blood was reduced significantly by long-term administration of CCH, whereas the nitric oxide concentration was increased significantly at 1 hour post-treatment. The results suggest that beneficial effects of CCH result from antihypertensive function, but also from inhibition of cardiovascular damage to the endothelial cells via its ACE inhibitory activity and regulation of nitric oxide and ICAM-1, which suggests that CCH may be useful as a medicinal food for patients with cardiovascular disease.

Doi K.,Tsukuba Center Inc. | Doi K.,University of Tokyo | Uetsuka K.,Ibaraki University
Journal of Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2014

Among the many mycotoxins, T-2 toxin, citrinin (CTN), patulin (PAT), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are known to have the potential to induce dermal toxicity and/or tumorigenesis in rodent models. T-2 toxin, CTN, PAT and OTA induce apoptosis in mouse or rat skin. PAT, AFB1 and OTA have tumor initiating properties, and OTA is also a tumor promoter in mouse skin. This paper reviews the molecular mechanisms of dermal toxicity and tumorigenesis induced in rodent models by these mycotoxins especially from the viewpoint of oxidative stress-mediated pathways. © 2014 The Japanese Society of Toxicologic Pathology.

Yonekita T.,Tsukuba Center Inc. | Fujimura T.,Tsukuba Center Inc. | Morishita N.,Tsukuba Center Inc. | Matsumoto T.,Tsukuba Center Inc. | Morimatsu F.,Tsukuba Center Inc.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2013

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26 has been increasingly associated with diarrheal disease all over the world. We developed an immunochromatographic (IC) strip for the rapid detection of E. coli O26 in food samples. To determine the specificity of the IC strip, pure cultures of 67 E. coli and 22 non-E. coli strains were tested with the IC strip. The IC strip could detect all (18 of 18) E. coli O26 strains tested and did not react with strains of any other E. coli serogroup or non-E. coli strains tested (0 of 71). The minimum detection limits for E. coli O26 were 2.2 × 103 to 1.0 × 105 CFU/ml. To evaluate the ability of the IC strip to detect E. coli O26 in food, 25-g food samples (ground beef, beef liver, ground chicken, alfalfa sprout, radish sprout, spinach, natural cheese, and apple juice) were spiked with E. coli O26. The IC strip was able to detect E. coli O26 at very low levels (approximately 1 CFU/25 g of food samples) after an 18-h enrichment, and the IC strip results were in 100% agreement with the results of the culture method and PCR assay. When 115 meat samples purchased from supermarkets were tested, 5 were positive for E. coli O26 with the IC strip; these results were confirmed with a PCR assay. These results suggest that the IC strip is a useful tool for detecting E. coli O26 in food samples. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection.

Terao Y.,Tsukuba Center Inc. | Yonekita T.,Tsukuba Center Inc. | Morishita N.,Tsukuba Center Inc. | Fujimura T.,Tsukuba Center Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2013

We developed and evaluated a lateral flow assay (LFA) as a simple and rapid method for direct detection of Escherichia coli O111 in food after enrichment. When cell suspensions of 8 E. coli O111 strains and 77 non-E. coli O111 strains were tested with the LFA, the former all yielded positive results and the latter all yielded negative results. The minimum detection limits for the E. coli O111 strains were 1.8 × 103 to 5.6 × 105 CFU/ml of cell suspension, and the LFA was able to detect live cultures or those killed by autoclaving at nearly the same level of sensitivity. To evaluate the ability of LFA to detect its target in food, enrichment cultures of meat samples inoculated with 10-fold serial dilutions of E. coli O111 were tested with the LFA and PCR. Even when there were very few E. coli O111 cells in the meat samples (1.6×100 to 1.6× 101 CFU/25 g of food), when they were cultured in modified E. coli broth with novobiocin for 22 h at 42°C, the LFA yielded positive results that corresponded to the PCR results. Although the LFA requires further evaluation and field study, these results suggest that this assay has sufficient sensitivity and specificity. This procedure can be completed with a one-step incubation after the test strip has been inserted into the sample after 22 h of culture, whereas the standard culture method requires multiple cultures, skilled personnel, a well-equipped laboratory, and 4 or 5 days. The speed and simplicity of this LFA make it suitable for use as part of routine screening assays in the food industry. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection.

Yonekita T.,Tsukuba Center Inc. | Ohtsuki R.,Tsukuba Center Inc. | Hojo E.,Tsukuba Center Inc. | Morishita N.,Tsukuba Center Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Microbiological Methods | Year: 2013

The binding capacity of peptides with broad antimicrobial activity, or antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), to microbes has recently been applied to the specific detection of bacteria and viruses. We established a novel lateral flow assay (LFA) that combines AMPs labeled with colloidal gold and a target-specific antibody immobilized on a nitrocellulose membrane. α-Helical AMPs, especially cecropin P1 (CP1), magainin 2 (MG2), and ceratotoxin A (CtxA), were shown to have optimal properties as probes in LFA. We also established a multiplex LFA for the simultaneous detection and identification of three serogroups of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) using the CP1 probe with polyclonal antibodies anti-O157, anti-O26, and anti-O111. Each serogroup of E. coli could easily and rapidly be detected by multiplex LFA using CP1 and each was clearly visualized in a different position on the LFA strip. The multiplex LFA could detect all tested E. coli strains from serogroups O157 (22/22), O26 (17/17), and O111 (7/7), and the detection limit was 104CFU/mL. No other serogroups of E. coli, including STEC O45, O91, O103, O121, and O145, or non-E. coli strains, reacted. The multiplex LFA could detect E. coli O157, O26, and O111 in food samples at very low levels (6.3, 2.9, and 5.6CFU per 25g of ground beef, respectively) after 18-h enrichment, and these results were in accordance with the results of the culture method, immunochromatography (IC) strip, and PCR. Given the broad binding capacity, AMP probes in combination with specific antibodies in the novel multiplex LFA may have the potential to detect various microbes simultaneously with identification on a single strip. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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