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Pohang, South Korea

Nahar G.,University of Leeds | Dupont V.,University of Leeds | Twigg M.V.,TST Co. | Dvininov E.,MEL Chemicals
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2015

The catalytic steam reforming of biodiesel was examined over Ni-alumina and Ni-ceria-zirconia catalysts at atmospheric pressure. Effects of temperatures of biodiesel preheating/vaporising (190-365°C) and reforming (600-800°C), molar steam to carbon ratio (S/C=2-3), and residence time in the reformer, represented by the weight hourly space velocity 'WHSV' of around 3 were examined for 2h. Ni supported on calcium aluminate and on ceria-zirconia supports achieved steady state hydrogen product stream within 90% of the equilibrium yields, although 4% and 1% of the carbon feed had deposited on the catalysts, respectively, during the combined conditions of start-up and steady state. Addition of dopants to ceria-zirconia supported catalyst decreased the performance of the catalyst. Increase in S/C ratio had the expected positive effects of higher H2 yield and lower carbon deposition. © 2015. Source


Dupont V.,University of Leeds | Twigg M.V.,TST Co. | Rollinson A.N.,University of Nottingham | Jones J.M.,University of Leeds
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2013

The thermodynamic effects of molar steam to carbon ratio (S:C), of pressure, and of having CaO present on the H2 yield and enthalpy balance of urea steam reforming were investigated. At a S:C of 3 the presence of CaO increased the H2 yield from 2.6 mol H2/mol urea feed at 940 K to 2.9 at 890 K, and decreased the enthalpy of bringing the system to equilibrium. A minimum enthalpy of 180.4 kJ was required to produce 1 mol of H2 at 880 K. This decreased to 94.0 kJ at 660 K with CaO-based CO2 sorption and, when including a regeneration step of the CaCO 3 at 1170 K, to 173 kJ at 720 K. The presence of CaO allowed widening the range of viable operation at lower temperature and significantly inhibited carbon formation. The feasibility of producing H2 from renewable urea in a low carbon future is discussed. Copyright © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Source


Swanson J.,University of Cambridge | Kittelson D.,University of Minnesota | Giechaskiel B.,AVL List GmbH | Bergmann A.,AVL List GmbH | Twigg M.,TST Co.
SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants | Year: 2013

The European Emissions Stage 5b standard for diesel passenger cars regulates particulate matter to 0.0045 g/km and non-volatile part/km greater than 23 nm size to 6.0u{double grave}1011 as determined by the PMP procedure that uses a heated evaporation tube to remove semi-volatile material. Measurement artifacts associated with the evaporation tube technique prevents reliable extension of the method to a lower size range. Catalytic stripper (CS) technology removes possible sources of these artifacts by effectively removing all hydrocarbons and sulfuric acid in the gas phase in order to avoid any chemical reactions or re-nucleation that may cause measurement complications. The performance of a miniature CS was evaluated and experimental results showed solid particle penetration was 50% at 10.5 nm. The sulfate storage capacity integrated into the CS enabled it to chemically remove sulfuric acid vapor rather than rely on dilution to prevent nucleation. Sulfuric acid re-nucleation was not observed until the challenge concentration was higher than 10 mg/m3. Additionally, the CS fully removed monodisperse tetracontane particles as large as 220 nm at a concentration of 10,000 part/cm3. A prototype "CS VPR" was constructed using the miniature CS and preliminary measurements from a field study are reported. Copyright © 2013 SAE International. Source


Swanson J.,University of Cambridge | Kittelson D.,University of Minnesota | Giechaskiel B.,AVL List GmbH | Bergmann A.,AVL List GmbH | Twigg M.,TST Co.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2013

The European Emissions Stage 5b standard for diesel passenger cars regulates particulate matter to 0.0045 g/km and non-volatile part/km greater than 23 nm size to 6.0×1011 as determined by the PMP procedure that uses a heated evaporation tube to remove semi-volatile material. Measurement artifacts associated with the evaporation tube technique prevents reliable extension of the method to a lower size range. Catalytic stripper (CS) technology removes possible sources of these artifacts by effectively removing all hydrocarbons and sulfuric acid in the gas phase in order to avoid any chemical reactions or re-nucleation that may cause measurement complications. The performance of a miniature CS was evaluated and experimental results showed solid particle penetration was 50% at 10.5 nm. The sulfate storage capacity integrated into the CS enabled it to chemically remove sulfuric acid vapor rather than rely on dilution to prevent nucleation. Sulfuric acid re-nucleation was not observed until the challenge concentration was higher than 10 mg/m 3. Additionally, the CS fully removed monodisperse tetracontane particles as large as 220 nm at a concentration of 10,000 part/cm3. A prototype CS VPR was constructed using the miniature CS and preliminary measurements from a field study are reported. Copyright © 2013 SAE International. Source


M-5

Trademark
Tst Inc. | Date: 2014-04-09

cast aluminum mold block and cast aluminum mold plate.

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