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News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

The space junk problem is not getting any better with the number of space debris orbiting the Earth growing by almost 500 this year. Nasa has released its quarterly report revealing the countries responsible for the maximum space junk in the near-Earth orbit. Russia accounts for more space debris than any other country with 6,501 pieces in total floating in space and this includes 155 new ones, according to the report. The US is second with 6,017 objects of which 298 are new. China is third but is comparatively far behind the two leading polluters with 3,801 junk items in space. Trending: Wild dolphins' immune systems are failing because of ocean pollution The role of other countries in polluting near-Earth orbits is insignificant. France accounts for 532 items, Japan for 256, India for 192, the European Space Agency for 134, and other countries for 914. As of now there are 18,347 space junk items in the near-Earth orbit alone including 4,434 payloads — both operational and defunct satellites — and 13,913 rocket bodies and debris. From January to April this year a total of 471 new junk items appeared in near-Earth orbits. In April, a report by scientists from Southampton University had warned that if the problem of space junk is not checked there could be a significant increase in catastrophic collisions in our galaxy. Additionally, the Central Research Institute for Machine Building (TSNIIMASH) has also warned that the global space industry will come to a standstill in a century or two if the problem of debris in near-Earth space is not resolved. You may be interested in:


Saprykin O.,TSNIIMASH | Imshenetskiy A.,Central Research Institute for Machine Building FGUP TSNIIMASH | Landgraf M.,European Space Agency
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2016

The authors consider various scenarios for lunar exploration simultaneously by manned and automatic space vehicles. Have a problem to the evaluating effectiveness and the conducting comparative analysis of these scenarios, because scientific and technological results of those missions are difficult to formalize and quantify measured. Authors proposed the formalization methodology of this task, which is depend understanding five main objectives for exploration of the Moon. For compare missions proposed description 31 characteristics of the missions, which are describing the achievement of stated exploration goals. The method takes into account possible changes in weight ratios of these characteristics if parameters were achieved for various levels in the framework of this mission. As an example authors have considered nine variants of missions for exploration of the moon, combining manned and unmanned means, and (for example) one mission without manned vehicle. Using the proposed method, they give the comparison of these scenarios, recommendations on the most preferable of them.


Saprykin O.,TSNIIMASH | Baksheeva E.,TSNIIMASH | Safronov V.,Research Institute of Precision Instruments | Tolstel O.,Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2016

The paper discusses the different uses of anthropomorphic robots to meet the challenges of the Moon by human. It showed great potential of using such robots: to ensure the safety of astronauts, servicing a wide range of space objects, solving research problems in a non-deterministic environment. In the formulation's part for the selection of specific embodiments of robotic systems are invited to consider the transport and manipulator's tasks separately. This formulation has allowed more specifically set goals for robotic systems and to synthesize their various combinations in the optimized composition. Authors identified the most important problems of control systems development for space anthropomorphic robot; in particular, questions of inclusion in the robot control loop a human brain in relation to the lunar environment - in a copying robot mode on the lunar surface with the use of the remote operator and the exoskeleton. In addition, authors touched on learning and adaptation of the anthropomorphic robot. The article proposed the concept of the use of anthropomorphic robots on the lunar surface, which takes into account the expected dynamics of the lunar infrastructure and manned lunar base.


Saprykin O.,TSNIIMASH | Imshenetskiy A.,Central Research Institute for Machine Building FGUP TSNIIMASH
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2016

The authors consider various scenarios for lunar exploration simultaneously by manned and automatic means. There is a problem in evaluating the effectiveness of these scenarios and conducting their comparative analysis, because scientific and technological results of those missions are difficult to formalize and quantify measured. Authors proposed the formalization methodology of this task, which is based on understanding five main objectives for exploration of the Moon. They proposed description 31 characteristics of the missions, which are describing the achievement of stated exploration goals. The method takes into account possible changes in weight ratios of these characteristics if parameters were achieved for various levels in the framework of this mission. As an example authors have considered 14 variants of missions for exploration of the moon, combining manned and unmanned means. Using the proposed method, they give the comparison of these scenarios, recommendations on the most preferable of them.


Ignatovich E.I.,TSNIImash | Schekutiev A.F.,TSNIImash | Zolkin I.A.,TSNIImash
21st Saint Petersburg International Conference on Integrated Navigation Systems, ICINS 2014 - Proceedings | Year: 2014

One of the intersatellite line (ISL) probable modes based on the onboard equipment of a laser navigation-link system (ISLNLS) is investigated. The ISL is intended for employment in GLONASS. In this paper, the problem of estimator construction for all of 24 Glonass space vehicles (SVs) Board Time Scales (BTS) corrections estimation is considered. It is essentially important that estimation is based on using a set of intersatellite measurements (ISM) carried out along a simple closed chain (circuit) of interactions including all navigation SVs. This unobservable problem is solved in the frames of the Least Squares Method, though the coefficients matrix has an incomplete rank. The technique of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of circulant matrices, relating to the means of linear algebra and geometry, is used for estimation of the obtained corrections characteristics. The process of BTS synchronization is presented using the algorithm for computation of the operative corrections of the TS short time jumps (leaps). This process relying on ISLNLS measurements is illustrated by diagrams. A special synchronization algorithm is proposed for Glonass SVs BTS operative synchronization on the basis of ISM, collected from short measure interval. By means of the intersatellite measurements results processing it is possible to converge these BTS to composite space time scale (CSS). In considered task statement, the measurements of the pairs BTS differencies were obtained and translated operatively in united processing center in situation of the IS interactions graph correspondence to a simple closed chain (circuit) including all the Glonass SVs. An employment of the present ISM scheme for GLONASS time support accuracy improving seems to be quite realistic if ISLNLS is used as the ISM and Intersatellite Link System on Glonass-K2 SVs. Two independently functioning onboard optic-electronic terminals of ISLNLS are supposed to be installed on each of given SVs in this case.


Saprykin O.,TsNIIMash
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2014

The complexity of the implementation of human spaceflight to the related art is so great, that of all the tasks carried out by the astronauts, only expensive repair satellites and space stations results in direct (justified, payback) results. Since manned stations themselves are the means for the existence of man in space, their repair can be treated bankable only conditionally-ie with respect to the funds spent on the creation of a space station. The amount of expensive satellites available to service manned spacecraft, is relatively small (in the range of 10-20 objects). A wider range of commercial services (such as space tourism, the media business, unique technologies testing, etc.) cannot yet justify the cost of the creation of manned space stations, ships. The level of financial expenses for the creation of a manned ship today more than 100 times biggest than a possibility of commercial investment in these services.


Pokrovskii A.N.,Moscow State University | Shmanenkov V.N.,TsNIImash
Russian Aeronautics | Year: 2013

A problem on the local wall heating (cooling) effect on the position of the laminar-turbulent transition zone on a blunted cone is considered. It is shown that the effect on the boundary layer transition point is less at cooling a heating element than at its heating. When the transition zone reaches the heating element, it is stabilized. © 2013 Allerton Press, Inc.


Zagreev B.,TSNIIMASH | Repchenkov R.,TSNIIMASH | Chikirev V.,TSNIIMASH
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2013

Computerized Decision Support System (DSS) for space experiments selection and optimal scheduling of the medium-term research program on the Russian segment of the International Space Station (ISS) has been developed. Currently, due to expansion of the number of proposals concerning new space experiments (SE) there is a need to increase the efficiency of expert procedures to identify priorities and develop programs of scientific and applied research on the Russian segment of the ISS. To solve this problem the DSS-ISS software was developed. This system meets all requirements to an advisory system for solving wide range of semistructured and unstructured multicriteria choice problems of high dimensionality. The DSS-ISS employs the methodology of decision support systems invariant to the application environment. At first stage one should expertize scientific and applied significance of proposed space experiments by vector criterion based on a customer value system. The output of this stage is priorities among space experiments. Planning and forming of an experimental program proceeds next. Scheduling of space experiments is determined by their priorities and resource requirements: - weight and dimensions of scientific payloads; - weight and dimensions of recoverable components and consumables; - payload power consumption; - time outlays; - information traffic; - special circumstance for space experiments; - funding. Some of these resources are renewable. However they are insufficient to meet all demands of space experiments developers. So there is a need for a reasonable plan of the research program. This task belongs to the class of combinatorial integer programming. The developed DSS-ISS can be customized and allows employing various methods to solve such tasks in accordance with the individual preferences of a decision maker. This circumstance becomes especially important with respect to use of universal DSS in various subject research areas on the ISS. The proposed system is expected to ensure more efficient use of ISS resources. ©2013 by the International Astronautical Federation. All rights reserved.


Meshcheryakov S.A.,TSNIImash | Korsun A.G.,TSNIImash
62nd International Astronautical Congress 2011, IAC 2011 | Year: 2011

There is proposed a probable mechanism that results in electromagnetic pulse (EMP) due to surface charge flow during impacts of meteoroids and orbital debris. The interesting situation occurs if an electricity-conductive body has a thin dielectric coating accumulates surface charge. When such coating is penetrated by hypervelocity particle there is created a plasma channel and part of surface charge flows to the body. This discharging process progresses in several stages. At the first stage the surface charge flows at zone of plasma cloud. Then this charge exhausted and a strong induction electrical field arises resulting in electrical breakdown and pulse surface discharge that can extend the area of concern much greater than the area of the hole in the coating. The related EMP can be much greater than one generated by expanding plasma. There is considered the first stage of the process. The equations of dynamics of the surface charge, the current in the plasma channel and the induction electrical field are developed and numerically calculated. It is shown that at the end of the first stage the induction electrical field is enough strong to initiate the surface discharge.


Krikalev S.,TSNIIMASH | Saprykin O.,TSNIIMASH
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2015

Authors submitted 19 scenarios of manned lunar infrastructure, which examined the using of 23 space means. The proposed scenarios are analyzed both from the point of view of the decision of tasks of exploration of the moon, formed by the state customer, and from the point of view of the possibility of commercialization of flights to the moon. The scenarios advantages and disadvantages are formalized, authors estimates the corresponding numerical indicators, introduce methods of calculation. It is shown that the efficiency of lunar exploration is logically and technically linked to the efficiency of the commercialization of space flight to the moon. Rational solutions driven by research and development of the moon can be regarded as rational from the point of view for commercialization of flights. This means the opportunity for early involvement in the development of the moon to private commercial organizations. Proposals are made for the rational composition and dimensionality of space means supported for manned flights for three major phases of the moon - for phase of lunar orbital flight, for phase of man's landing on the moon and for phase of base on the moon surface.

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