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Trushlyakov V.,Omsk State Technical University | Makarov J.,Roscosmos | Shatrov Y.,TSNIIMASH | Baranov D.,TSSKB Progress
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC

To stopping the flow in the protected area near Earth space man-made long space debris, in this case an upper stages of SLV with liquid propulsion engines (LPE) once they complete their mission, and to reduce the impact of lower stages in the impact footprints considered the development of an autonomous onboard deorbiting system (AODS), which provides deorbiting maneuver. As an example, SLV type "Souz-2.1.B" on propellants "oxygen- kerosene". To implement the deorbiting maneuver suggests the use of the energy resources contained in unused remains of liquid propellant in the tanks of stages SLV after main LPE off. Proposed AODS close to its basic purpose to the systems to used the second stage LPE: RL-10B-2 (SLV «Delta-4»), LE-5B-2 (SLV «H-IIB»), HM7-B (SLV «Ariane 5») for propellants "oxygen - hydrogen" are also implemented deorbit stages from orbit. Differences between the proposed schemes from the russian scheme are as follows: - instead of using a cryogenic hydrogen fuel high-boiling kerosene (russian SLV type "Souz", advanced "Angara"), which leads to the need for a multiple increase of heat input to the tank with fuel for the gasification of kerosene; - to implement the pulse in the AODS developed special gas propulsion engine (GPE), which has small dimensions and mass; - having regard to the russian specifics stages to bring in impact areas with dramatically reduced size, suggests the use of AODS both the first and the second stages of SLV; - additional placement of propellant on board to get the heat-carrier levels can guarantee to provide testing of the specified impulse. The main critical technology to create AODS is gasification of residues of liquid kerosene as they are in an uncertain boundary condition after the sustainer LPE off. The proposed gasification system is based on the feeding of the hot gas (heat-carrier) in the propellant tanks. It is made preliminary cost-effectiveness analysis of the use AODS, which has shown quick recoupment of this development. Source

Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC

The complexity of the implementation of human spaceflight to the related art is so great, that of all the tasks carried out by the astronauts, only expensive repair satellites and space stations results in direct (justified, payback) results. Since manned stations themselves are the means for the existence of man in space, their repair can be treated bankable only conditionally-ie with respect to the funds spent on the creation of a space station. The amount of expensive satellites available to service manned spacecraft, is relatively small (in the range of 10-20 objects). A wider range of commercial services (such as space tourism, the media business, unique technologies testing, etc.) cannot yet justify the cost of the creation of manned space stations, ships. The level of financial expenses for the creation of a manned ship today more than 100 times biggest than a possibility of commercial investment in these services. Source

Pokrovskii A.N.,Moscow State University | Shmanenkov V.N.,TSNIIMASH
Russian Aeronautics

A problem on the local wall heating (cooling) effect on the position of the laminar-turbulent transition zone on a blunted cone is considered. It is shown that the effect on the boundary layer transition point is less at cooling a heating element than at its heating. When the transition zone reaches the heating element, it is stabilized. © 2013 Allerton Press, Inc. Source

Harris A.W.,German Aerospace Center | Barucci M.A.,LESIA Observatoire de Paris | Cano J.L.,Deimos Space | Fitzsimmons A.,Queens University of Belfast | And 10 more authors.
Acta Astronautica

Although discussions are underway within the Action Team 14 of the United Nations COPUOS, there is currently no concerted international plan addressing the impact threat from near-Earth objects (NEOs) and how to organize, prepare and implement mitigation measures. We report on a new international project to address impact hazard mitigation issues, being the subject of a proposal submitted to the European Commission in response to the 2011 FP7 Call "Prevention of impacts from near-Earth objects on our planet". Our consortium consists of 13 research institutes, universities, and industrial partners from 6 countries and includes leading US and Russian space organizations. The primary aim of the project, NEOShield, is to investigate in detail the three most promising mitigation techniques: the kinetic impactor, blast deflection, and the gravity tractor, and devise feasible demonstration missions. Furthermore, we will investigate options for an international strategy for implementation when an actual impact threat arises. The NEOShield project was formally accepted by the European Commission on 17 November 2011 and funded with a total of 5.8 million Euros for a period of 3.5 years. The kick-off meeting took place at the DLR Institute of Planetary Research, Berlin, in January 2012. In this paper we present a brief overview of the planned scope of the project. © 2012 IAA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Rai A.,NASA | Robinson J.A.,NASA | Tate-Brown J.,Barrios Technology | Buckley N.,Canadian Space Agency | And 5 more authors.
Acta Astronautica

In 2012, the International Space Station (ISS) (Fig. 1) partnership published the updated International Space Station Benefits for Humanity [1], a compilation of stories about the many benefits being realized in the areas of human health, Earth observations and disaster response, and global education. This compilation has recently been revised to include updated statistics on the impacts of the benefits, and new benefits that have developed since the first publication. Two new sections have also been added to the book, economic development of space and innovative technology. This paper will summarize the updates on behalf of the ISS Program Science Forum, made up of senior science representatives across the international partnership. The new section on “Economic Development of Space” highlights case studies from public-private partnerships that are leading to a new economy in low earth orbit (LEO). Businesses provide both transportation to the ISS as well as some research facilities and services. These relationships promote a paradigm shift of government-funded, contractor-provided goods and services to commercially-provided goods purchased by government agencies. Other examples include commercial firms spending research and development dollars to conduct investigations on ISS and commercial service providers selling services directly to ISS users. This section provides examples of ISS as a test bed for new business relationships, and illustrates successful partnerships. The second new section, “Innovative Technology,” merges technology demonstration and physical science findings that promise to return Earth benefits through continued research. Robotic refueling concepts for life extensions of costly satellites in geo-synchronous orbit have applications to robotics in industry on Earth. Flame behavior experiments reveal insight into how fuel burns in microgravity leading to the possibility of improving engine efficiency on Earth. Nanostructures and smart fluids are examples of materials improvements that are being developed using data from ISS. The publication also expands the benefits of research results in human health, environmental change and disaster response and in education activities developed to capture student imaginations in support of science, technology, engineering and mathematics, or STEM, education internationally. Applications to human health of the knowledge gained on ISS continue to grow and improve healthcare technologies and our understanding of human physiology. Distinct benefits return to Earth from the only orbiting multi-disciplinary laboratory of its kind. The ISS is a stepping stone for future space exploration by providing findings that develop LEO and improve life on our planet. © 2016 Source

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