Fu C.,Tsinghua University |
Li W.,Tsinghua Holdings Human Settlements Environment Institute
Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering | Year: 2014
In this study, China's current macro-environmental policies as well as their implementation and management tools are analyzed. By using the basic economic methodology, detailed studies are conducted focusing on the implementation effect of contemporary China's typical environmental policy of the total pollutant discharge quantity control type, and also the two types of environmental management tools are compared from the perspective of implementation costs and policy uncertainty. By introduction of distributed management tools into the implementation of environmental policies, market-oriented means and the methods of economic analysis are introduced into environmental policy decision-making mechanisms, which could afford a new method for changing the current relatively low efficiency of environmental policy, solving the problem of "government failure" in environmental policy implementation, and providing a new way to make environmental policy system more flexible and more efficient. It is of great practical significance to solve China's current structural, complex and accumulative environmental problems. © 2014 Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Feng K.,Taiyuan University of Technology |
Yuan K.-K.,Tsinghua Holdings Human Settlements Environment Institute |
Li W.-F.,Tsinghua Holdings Human Settlements Environment Institute |
Li W.-F.,Tsinghua University |
And 3 more authors.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science | Year: 2014
To investigate the pollution formation and causes of island city, the MM5/CALPUFF modeling system was applied to quantificationally calculate the effects of air transportation on air quality in Zhoushan islands. The results show that Shanghai had the biggest contribution for the air pollution in Zhoushan which mainly due to the transmission of pollutants in upper northwest atmosphere in winter, with SO2 71%~79% and NO2 72%~83%; and Zhejiang had dramatical influence on the condition of south wind, with SO2 52%~63% and NO2 49%~55% in summer, respectively. Heavy air pollutions were continually emerged, which considered relevant weather conditions such as frequent and high-speed northwest or northerly wind, the highest concentration of all monitoring sites were 122~194 μg/m3per hour and 98% of contribution from regional transportation. A suggestion was presented that air quality improvement in Zhoushan islands should be jointed prevention and control with other cities.
Zhang N.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences |
Wan J.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences |
Yuan K.,Tsinghua Holdings Human Settlements Environment Institute |
Wnag Q.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences |
Yu X.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae | Year: 2014
From the perspective of "air pollution climatology", the concept, levels classification, assessment methods and zoning control philosophy of air resource endowments were provided. A case study was conducted for the Urban Environmental Master Planning of Yichang City. The atmospheric system was simulated and analyzed with MM5 and CALMET model. Based on producing the meteorological field with spatial resolution of 1 km×1 km, the A values with high spatial resolution were calculated, and levels of air resource were determined subsequently. The spatial distributions of air resource were determined and control policies of partition management were enhanced through combining the results with geographic information system. It was shown that the air resource can be divided into four levels. Areas with abundant air resources, where the A values were over 8, covered approximately 30.3% of the total city area. Fine and general areas with A values in the range of 5~8 and 3~5 accounted for 34.1% and 34.8%, respectively. Areas with A values between 1 and 3 were scarce, only accounting for 0.8%. The results indicated that the method proposed in this study is reasonable for assessing urban air resources.There will be a great application prospect in industry distribution and grading regulation during the long-term planning.
Sun F.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences |
Sun F.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences |
Sun F.,Policy Research Center for Environment and economics |
Lu Y.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences |
And 6 more authors.
Catena | Year: 2015
Hydrological service by soil under mountain ecosystems is a hot topic in current ecological research. We monitored the precipitation and soil moisture dynamics and measured the soil hydrological parameters of grassland and forest ecosystems along an elevation gradient in the Dayekou catchment of the central Qilian Mountains in northwestern China. Soil moisture dynamics in response to rainfall events exhibit different characteristics with different ecosystems and at different elevations. The soil conditions (including soil texture, soil structure, and soil hydrological parameters), the local meteorological condition, and the physiological characteristics of the vegetation can help explain eco-hydrological differences. The total rainfall increased with an increase in elevation across the rainy season. Soil moisture content increased with an increase in altitude and differs with land cover on average values. Grassland and forest at low elevations have 50% and 41.7% of the soil moisture content level under shrubland at high elevations, and Qinghai spruce forest soil has the greatest "green water (the water used mainly by the ecosystem itself)" capacity. Fluctuation in soil moisture diminishes with increased depth, yet the trend is not obvious under shrubland at high elevations. The sensitivity of soil moisture response to rainfall differed depending on land cover and soil depth. Soil moisture under alpine shrubland is far more sensitive to single rainfall events, whereas other land-cover types display only typical responses in periods of frequent rainfall events (continued-rainfall scale). The study of soil moisture dynamics contributes to research on hydrological service in mountain ecosystems, and is helpful in promoting knowledge innovation regarding the relationship between water and ecosystems. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.