Trujillo National University
Trujillo, Peru

The National University of Trujillo is a major public university located in Trujillo, Peru, capital of the department of La Libertad. The university was founded by Simón Bolívar and José Faustino Sánchez Carrión, who met in Huamachuco; they signed the decree of foundation on May 10, 1824, before Peru's independence from Spain. National University of Trujillo, was the first republican university founded in Peru.UNT has approximately 19,000 students in 12 academic faculties, making it one of the largest universities in the country. The current headmaster is Dr. Victor Carlos Sabana Gamarra.The UNT is ranked as one of the best universities in Peru. Wikipedia.

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Klaus H.D.,Utah Valley University | Tam M.E.,Trujillo National University
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2010

This work explores the effects of European contact on Andean foodways in the Lambayeque Valley Complex, north coast Peru. We test the hypothesis that Spanish colonization negatively impacted indigenous diet. Diachronic relationships of oral health were examined from the dentitions of 203 late-pre-Hispanic and 175 colonial-period Mochica individuals from Mórrope, Lambayeque, to include observations of dental caries, antemortem tooth loss, alveolar inflammation, dental calculus, periodontitis, and dental wear. G-tests and odds ratio analyses across six age classes indicate a range of statistically significant postcontact increases in dental caries, antemortem tooth loss, and dental calculus prevalence. These findings are associated with ethnohistoric contexts that point to colonial-era economic reorganization which restricted access to multiple traditional food sources. We infer that oral health changes reflect creative Mochica cultural adjustments to dietary shortfalls through the consumption of a greater proportion of dietary carbohydrates. Simultaneously, independent skeletal indicators of biological stress suggest that these adjustments bore a cost in increased nutritional stress. Oral health appears to have been systematically worse among colonial women. We rule out an underlying biological cause (female fertility variation) and suggest that the establishment of European gender ideologies and divisions of labor possibly exposed colonial Mochica women to a more cariogenic diet. Overall, dietary change in Mórrope appears shaped by local responses to a convergence of colonial Spanish economic agendas, landscape transformation, and social changes during the postcontact transition in northern Peru. These findings also further the understandings of dietary and biocultural histories of the Western Hemisphere. Am J Phys Anthropol 141:594-609, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Chavez-Galarza J.,Trujillo National University | Pais C.,University of Minho | Sampaio P.,University of Minho
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2010

Candida albicans population studies showed that this species could be divided into sub-groups of closely related strains, designated by clades. Since the emergence of microsatellite analysis as a PCR based method, this technique has been successfully used as a tool to differentiate C. albicans isolates but has never been tested regarding clustering of the five major clades. In this study we tested microsatellite length polymorphism (MLP) ability to group 29 C. albicans strains previously defined as belonging to clades I, II, III, E and SA, nine atypical strains from Angola and Madagascar, and 78 Portuguese clinical isolates. MLP typing of the total 116 strains analyzed yielded 87 different multilocus allelic combinations which resulted in a high discriminatory power index, of 0.987, with only two markers, CA1 and CEF3. Cluster analysis of the 29 previously defined strains grouped them according to their clade designation with a matrix cophenetic correlation of r=0.963 after a normalized Mantel statistic. Clustering analysis of the 116 strains maintained the same groupings, clearly defining the five major C. albicans clades. The cophenetic value obtained was of r=0.839, and the one-tail probability of the normalized Mantel statistic out of 1000 random permutations was P=0.0020. The proportion of Portuguese isolates in the groups I, II, III and SA was of 2.7%, 15.4%, 3.8% and 0%, respectively. None of the isolates co-clustered with the atypical strains. These results confirm MLP typing as a good method both to type and differentiate C. albicans isolates and to group isolates, identifying the major C. albicans clades, similarly to Ca3 fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Yep-Gamarra V.,Trujillo National University
Revista de gastroenterología del Perú : órgano oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú | Year: 2012

Extra-intestinal manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Disease occur in 25% of cases. Vascular manifestations are rare and occur in 1 to 8% of cases. The most relevant are Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) and Pulmonary Embolism (PE). They both represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality and increase the risk of DVT recurrence. These are the reasons why prevention and early recognition of these entities are important. There is no agreement yet about the prophylaxis of DVT, neither primary nor secondary, to prevent recurrences in this group of patients. We report the case of a 52 year-old male patient who was admitted due to DVT in the left leg and who was simultaneously diagnosed with Ulcerative Colitis (Truelove activity index:16 points) during this same hospitalization. Doppler ultrasonography of the leg showed a thrombus in the left popliteal vein. Colonoscopy showed nodules, erosions, edema and erythema in the whole colonic mucosa in a continuous fashion. The patient was treated with Sulfazalasine 2gr per day, resulting in total remission of the intestinal complaints, and with Enoxaparin 1.5 IU/Kg per day followed by warfarin 5 mg per day, resulting in disappearance of the popliteal thrombus at 4 weeks. Oral anticoagulant treatment continued for 6 months and no DVT recurrences were seen during follow-up appointments.

Torres Ledesma C.E.,Trujillo National University
Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences | Year: 2015

In this paper, we are interested in the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with non-local regional diffusion 1 (-Δ)ραu+u=f(x,u)inRn,u∈Hα(Rn), where 0 < α < 1 and (-Δ)ρα is a variational version of the regional Laplacian, whose range of scope is a ball with radius ρ(x) > 0. The novelty of this paper is that, assuming f is of subquadratic growth as |u|→+∞, we show that possesses infinitely many solutions via the genus properties in critical point theory. Furthermore, if f(x,u) = γa(x)|u|γ - 1, where γ∈(1,2),a∈L22-γ(Rn,R+) is a nonincreasing radially symmetric function, then the solution of is radially symmetric. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Iparraguirre J.B.C.,Trujillo National University
Proceedings of 2016 SAI Computing Conference, SAI 2016 | Year: 2016

Our proposed methodology allows to calculate the economic value and evaluate the performance, for each of the components of a website. Currently, to assess a website, there are several techniques: expert assessment, business performance factors, valuation algorithms or income and expenses of the website. These methods incorporate a subjective estimate to determine income - they incorporate income that has not yet occurred. Our methodology is different because it eliminates this subjectivity. It uses for calculating revenues, those costs and expenses that have already occurred. Thus, it is compatible with widely accepted accounting methods and techniques. The methodology defines the composition of the website as the following components: Web system (in turn composed of Domain, Web content, Hardware, Software, Data and Communications), and the e-business unit (in turn composed of Personnel, Products, Services and Processes). The Electronic business unit is the area of the company or entity that operates the Web system, to do business or meet the institutional goal, using the website. The definition given to the website, serves to classify all attributes of it that give value. It then evaluates each attribute or element of a component, so that it adds or subtracts value to the total for that component. To value it economically, it applies a conversion factor that incorporates costs and expenses incurred. Finally, the results are calculated per component. It also includes a component of Finance to add the results of the fiscal year. Finally, the economic value of the website is determined by the sum of all these values. © 2016 IEEE.

This paper presents a first approximation obtained from the use of space syntax in residential households in the ancient Moche city (s. VII-IX AD). Studies in the site of Temples of the Sun and Moon have elucidated that during the last centuries of occupation, the theocratic system collapsed and a change began towards a new political and ideological system by the new ruling elites. The analyses have allowed us to understand the logic of built space in three households' complex and show a high understanding of hierarchy and spatial distribution by its former inhabitants. Obviously, the use of Archaeology of architecture in societies like the Moche requires more studies, because these households have very complex internal divisions, where the spatial unit does not always work independently, but in many cases are linked with other constituting a complex functional space. © 2015 CSIC.

Ledesma C.E.T.,Trujillo National University
Annals of the University of Craiova, Mathematics and Computer Science Series | Year: 2015

In this paper, we investigate the existence of solution for the following fractional Hamiltonian systems: where α ∈ (1=2; 1), t ∈ ℝ, u ∈ ℝn, L ∈ C(ℝℝn2 ) is a symmetric and positive defnite matrix for all t ∈ ℝ, W ∈ C1(ℝ × ℝn;ℝ) and ∇W is the gradient of W at u. The novelty of this paper is that, assuming there exists l 2 C(ℝℝ) such that (L(t)u; u) > l(t)|u|2 for all t ∈ ℝn, u 2 ℝn and the following conditions on l: inft2ℝ l(t) > 0 and there exists r0 > 0 such that, for any M > 0 are satisfied and W is superquadratic growth as |u| →+∞, we show that (1) possesses at least one nontrivial solution via mountain pass theorem. ℝecent results in [21] are significantly improved. We do not assume that l(t) have a limit for |t| →+∞. © 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary 34C37; Secondary 35A15; 35B38.

Veleva L.,CINVESTAV | Farro W.,Trujillo National University
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2012

X-ray diffraction analysis was used to monitor patina composition on copper samples exposed during one-year period to different seawater zones (splash, tidal and full immersion) and marine atmospheric aerosols. Two phases contributed most to patina formation: cuprite (copper oxide) and atacamite (copper chloride compound). Their relative XRD spectra intensities were very similar in patina formed in the tidal sea zone, but atacamite became the sole majority phase in the full immersion zone. The cuprite phase decreased over time, and two minority copper sulfates phases appeared: posnjakite and chalcanthite (CuSO 4). The results revealed that copper patina composition is strongly influenced by chloride pollution and specific zone conditions. Additional factors, such as wind-blown sand, continuous dredging in coastal areas and vessel docking, influenced degree of pollutant compound adherence to patinas and consequently their structure (porous or compact). © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Olortegui-Yume J.A.,Trujillo National University | Kwon P.Y.,Michigan State University
Wear | Year: 2010

The crater topography patterns on multi-layer coated tools after turning for a series of machining times have been measured using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and Stylus Profilometry. These patterns have been collected to study the evolution of crater wear and explore a possibility of predicting the wear profile through the physics-based wear models. The raw crater patterns were processed using multi-resolution 1D and 2D wavelet analysis to eliminate the noise and spike/pits and then to decouple the large- and short-scale wear features. The wavelet method is proved to be a very powerful tool to filter noise/artifacts without losing the general crater pattern and to decouple roughness, waviness and form. Wavelet-decoupled roughness contained the scoring marks whose presence was monitored along the chip-flow direction and related to the preeminence between abrasion and dissolution based on the temperature distribution predicted by Finite Element Simulation. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Introduction: Solanum multifidum Lam. and Lycianthes lycioides (L.) Hassl. are two species typical of coastal hills of Peru. Both belong to the Solanaceae family, and are renowned for their high content of alkaloids with a variety of therapeutic activities. That was the reason why the present study was conducted. Objective: evaluate the antinociceptive and antibacterial activity of total alkaloids from leaves of Solanum multifidum Lam. and Lycianthes lycioides (L.) Hassl. Methods: total alkaloids were extracted from dry leaves of the study species following the method described by Peña. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated in vivo using the writhing test, whereas in vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated with the agar diffusion technique with impregnated discs. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method. Results: in both species total alkaloids showed antinociceptive activity at doses of 2.5 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg y 10 mg/kg, with the greatest inhibition percentage at 10 mg/kg and statistically significant differences (p< 0.05). The alkaloids also inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25992) and Pseudomona aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) at concentrations of 2 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL, exhibiting greater bioactivity against Staphlylococus aureus. In general terms, total alkaloids Lycianthes lycioides (L.) Hassl. showed the greatest antinociceptive and antibacterial activity. Conclusions: it was demonstrated that total alkaloids from both species have antinociceptive and antibacterial activity. The present paper is the first report about bioactivity of these plant species, an attractive option for the development of new drugs. © 2015, Editorial Ciencias Medicas. All rights reserved.

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