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Saranac Lake, NY, United States

Haynes L.,Trudeau Institute | Parker C.,Academic Urology Unit | Iversen P.,Copenhagen University
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2012

Sipuleucel-T was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on April 29, 2010, as an immunotherapy for late-stage prostate cancer. To manufacture sipuleucel-T, mononuclear cells harvested from the patient are incubated with a recombinant prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) antigen and reinfused. The manufacturer proposes that antigen-presenting cells exogenously activated by PAP induce endogenous T-cells to attack PAP-bearing prostate cancer cells. However, the lack of demonstrable tumor responses has prompted calls for scrutiny of the design of the trials in which sipuleucel-T demonstrated a 4-month survival benefit. Previously unpublished data from the sipuleucel-T trials show worse overall survival in older vs younger patients in the placebo groups, which have not been shown previously to be prognostic for survival in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Because two-thirds of the cells harvested from placebo patients, but not from the sipuleucel-T arm, were frozen and not reinfused a detrimental effect of this large repeated cell loss provides a potential alternative explanation for the survival "benefit." Patient safety depends on adequately addressing this alternative explanation for the trial results. © 2012 The Author (s). Published by Oxford University Press. Source


Haynes L.,Trudeau Institute | Swain S.L.,University of Massachusetts Medical School
Seminars in Immunology | Year: 2012

Our recent studies indicate that the longer peripheral persistence of naïve CD4 T cells that occurs with age is necessary for the development of the key aging defects that lead to compromised responses to vaccination and to new pathogens or new strains of circulating infectious agents. This longer persistence is in turn is linked to the decrease in development of new thymic emigrants and thymic involution that occur at adolescence. Therefore the process of development of naïve CD4 aging defects, is closely tied to the homeostasis of T cells and the shifts that occur in their homeostasis with age. Here we review this connection between age-related changes in T cell homeostasis and the development of T cell defects and discuss the implication for approaches to better vaccinating the elderly. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Cooper A.M.,Trudeau Institute | Mayer-Barber K.D.,Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases | Sher A.,Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases
Mucosal Immunology | Year: 2011

Cells of the innate immune system produce cytokines and lipid mediators that strongly influence the outcome of mycobacterial infection. In the case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the lung is a critical site for this interaction. Here, we review current information on the role of the major innate cytokine pathways both in controlling initial infection as well as in promoting and maintaining adaptive T-cell responses that mediate host resistance or immunopathology. Understanding this important feature of the host-pathogen interaction can provide major insights into the mechanisms of virulence and can lead to new approaches for immunological intervention in tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases. © 2011 Society for Mucosal Immunology. Source


Robinson R.T.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Orme I.M.,Colorado State University | Cooper A.M.,Trudeau Institute
Immunological Reviews | Year: 2015

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has been evolving with its human host for over 50 000 years and is an exquisite manipulator of the human immune response. It induces both a strong inflammatory and a strong acquired immune response, and Mtb then actively regulates these responses to create an infectious lesion in the lung while maintaining a relatively ambulatory host. The CD4+ T cell plays a critical yet contradictory role in this process by both controlling disseminated disease while promoting the development of the lesion in the lung that mediates transmission. In light of this manipulative relationship between Mtb and the human immune response, it is not surprising that our ability to vaccinate against tuberculosis (TB) has not been totally successful. To overcome the current impasse in vaccine development, we need to define the phenotype of CD4+ T cells that mediate protection and to determine those bacterial and host factors that regulate the effective function of these cells. In this review, we describe the initiation and expression of T cells during TB as well as the fulminant inflammatory response that can compromise T-cell function and survival. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source


Pearce E.L.,Trudeau Institute
Current Opinion in Immunology | Year: 2010

When naïve or memory T cells encounter foreign antigen along with proper co-stimulation they undergo rapid and extensive clonal expansion. In mammals, this type of proliferation is fairly unique to cells of the adaptive immune system and requires a considerable expenditure of energy and cellular resources. While research has often focused on the roles of cytokines, antigenic signals, and co-stimulation in guiding T cell responses, data indicate that, at a fundamental level, it is cellular metabolism that regulates T cell function and differentiation and therefore influences the final outcome of the adaptive immune response. This review will focus on some earlier fundamental observations regarding T cell bioenergetics and its role in regulating cellular function, as well as recent work that suggests that manipulating the immune response by targeting lymphocyte metabolism could prove useful in treatments against infection and cancer. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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