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Saranac Lake, NY, United States

Haynes L.,Trudeau Institute | Parker C.,Academic Urology Unit | Iversen P.,Copenhagen University
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2012

Sipuleucel-T was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on April 29, 2010, as an immunotherapy for late-stage prostate cancer. To manufacture sipuleucel-T, mononuclear cells harvested from the patient are incubated with a recombinant prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) antigen and reinfused. The manufacturer proposes that antigen-presenting cells exogenously activated by PAP induce endogenous T-cells to attack PAP-bearing prostate cancer cells. However, the lack of demonstrable tumor responses has prompted calls for scrutiny of the design of the trials in which sipuleucel-T demonstrated a 4-month survival benefit. Previously unpublished data from the sipuleucel-T trials show worse overall survival in older vs younger patients in the placebo groups, which have not been shown previously to be prognostic for survival in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Because two-thirds of the cells harvested from placebo patients, but not from the sipuleucel-T arm, were frozen and not reinfused a detrimental effect of this large repeated cell loss provides a potential alternative explanation for the survival "benefit." Patient safety depends on adequately addressing this alternative explanation for the trial results. © 2012 The Author (s). Published by Oxford University Press.


Haynes L.,Trudeau Institute | Swain S.L.,University of Massachusetts Medical School
Seminars in Immunology | Year: 2012

Our recent studies indicate that the longer peripheral persistence of naïve CD4 T cells that occurs with age is necessary for the development of the key aging defects that lead to compromised responses to vaccination and to new pathogens or new strains of circulating infectious agents. This longer persistence is in turn is linked to the decrease in development of new thymic emigrants and thymic involution that occur at adolescence. Therefore the process of development of naïve CD4 aging defects, is closely tied to the homeostasis of T cells and the shifts that occur in their homeostasis with age. Here we review this connection between age-related changes in T cell homeostasis and the development of T cell defects and discuss the implication for approaches to better vaccinating the elderly. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Cooper A.M.,Trudeau Institute | Mayer-Barber K.D.,Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases | Sher A.,Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases
Mucosal Immunology | Year: 2011

Cells of the innate immune system produce cytokines and lipid mediators that strongly influence the outcome of mycobacterial infection. In the case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the lung is a critical site for this interaction. Here, we review current information on the role of the major innate cytokine pathways both in controlling initial infection as well as in promoting and maintaining adaptive T-cell responses that mediate host resistance or immunopathology. Understanding this important feature of the host-pathogen interaction can provide major insights into the mechanisms of virulence and can lead to new approaches for immunological intervention in tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases. © 2011 Society for Mucosal Immunology.


Robinson R.T.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Orme I.M.,Colorado State University | Cooper A.M.,Trudeau Institute
Immunological Reviews | Year: 2015

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has been evolving with its human host for over 50 000 years and is an exquisite manipulator of the human immune response. It induces both a strong inflammatory and a strong acquired immune response, and Mtb then actively regulates these responses to create an infectious lesion in the lung while maintaining a relatively ambulatory host. The CD4+ T cell plays a critical yet contradictory role in this process by both controlling disseminated disease while promoting the development of the lesion in the lung that mediates transmission. In light of this manipulative relationship between Mtb and the human immune response, it is not surprising that our ability to vaccinate against tuberculosis (TB) has not been totally successful. To overcome the current impasse in vaccine development, we need to define the phenotype of CD4+ T cells that mediate protection and to determine those bacterial and host factors that regulate the effective function of these cells. In this review, we describe the initiation and expression of T cells during TB as well as the fulminant inflammatory response that can compromise T-cell function and survival. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


King I.L.,University of Rochester | King I.L.,Trudeau Institute | Kroenke M.A.,University of Rochester | Segal B.M.,University of Michigan
Journal of Experimental Medicine | Year: 2010

Dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in CD4+ T helper (Th) cell differentiation and in the initiation of both protective and pathogenic immunity. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a DC growth factor critical for the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and other autoimmune diseases, yet its mechanism of action in vivo is not fully defined. We show that GM-CSF is directly required for the accumulation of radiosensitive dermal-derived langerin +CD103+ DCs in the skin and peripheral lymph nodes under steady-state and inflammatory conditions. Langerin+CD103+ DCs stimulated naive myelin-reactive T cells to proliferate and produce IFN-γ and IL-17. They were superior to other DC subsets in inducing expression of T-bet and promoting Th1 cell differentiation. Ablation of this subset in vivo conferred resistance to EAE. The current report reveals a previously unidentified role for GM-CSF in DC ontogeny and identifies langerin+CD103+ DCs as an important subset in CD4 + T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. © 2010 King et al.

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