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Bonney Lake, WA, United States

Martin K.E.,Washington State University | Martin K.E.,Troutlodge Inc | Steele C.A.,Washington State University | Brunelli J.P.,Washington State University | Thorgaard G.H.,Washington State University
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society | Year: 2010

The genetic variation of many species in the Northern Hemisphere has been influenced by climatic changes during the Pleistocene Epoch. Phylogeographic studies can help determine intraspecific relationships and postglacial recolonization routes for many of these species, potentially leading to a more complete understanding of how flora and fauna respond to dramatic climate change. We analyzed the variation in the mitochondrial DNA sequences of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from California to the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, to gain insight into the role of Pleistocene glaciation in the genetic structuring of this species. The geographic distribution of haplotypes revealed high levels of genetic diversity in the Columbia River drainage. Nested clade analysis suggests northward expansion from this area during the late Pleistocene, a hypothesis that is further supported by evidence of demographic growth and population expansion in the northern portion of the species' range. Estimates of the divergence time between two phylogenetic clades are correlated with interglacial periods of the Pleistocene. The data suggest the absence of Chinook salmon from the current northern part of its distribution until the late Pleistocene, when northward expansion from a southern refugium occurred (during an interglacial period), followed by the recent genetic divergence of these northern populations. © American Fisheries Society 2010.

Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 64.93K | Year: 2003

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY: Growth in farmed rainbow trout can depend on heritable traits that dictate how fish respond to particular diets. Farmers need more information on identifying growth traits using DNA marker analysis, enabling them to select fish with desirable growth characteristics. Success in this project will define appropriate selection methods for improving growth in rainbow trout using plant based diets, ascertain the effectiveness of microsatellite DNA marker analysis for pedigree assignment in a commercial aquaculture setting, and establish the groundwork for marker-assisted selection programs for these traits in rainbow trout.

Agency: Department of Commerce | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 90.97K | Year: 2009

Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) exhibit differential growth rates between the sexes, with females growing faster than males.  Sex determination mechanisms have not been elucidated for this species, nor are there any literature reports regarding the induction of sterility through triploidy or attempts at generating uniparental inheritance. The research outlined in this proposal will establish protocols for the induction of gynogenesis and triploidy in cobia.  Specifically we will determine the appropriate methods for suppression of second meiosis in newly fertilized eggs and the protocols needed for inactivating parental sperm DNA.  

Agency: Department of Commerce | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 194.85K | Year: 2006

Metabolism and physiology research on the sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) conducted in Phase I of this research established that this fish is highly suited to culture conditions typically found in the Pugent Sound or Straight of Juan de Fuca waterways of the state of Washington. In this research, we will examine techniques to improve spawning of captive brood fish, increase fertilization success, enhance incubation and hatching results, and define early feeding requirements. Additionally, we will further examine the particular physiological and metabolic issues important to grow-out in net pen aquaculture settings (particularly fecal settling rates and C/N ratios), and incorporate data generated into a modeling system developed to assess aquaculture dynamics.

Agency: Department of Commerce | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 75.50K | Year: 2006

The use of sterile, triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) has been suggested by many to be a means of mitigating the perceived genetic impacts of escaped animals on their wild counterparts. The US Atlantic salmon industry has been slow to adopt this technology, apparently due to reduced performance under stress of conventionally made (de novo) triploids. We propose to develop techniques to produce tetraploid Atlantic salmon (individuals with four sets of chromosomes). These individuals can then be reared to maturity and crossed with diploid salmon to reliably produce all triploid offspring. In recent research programs using similar methods in rainbow trout, these autotriploids have performed better than their diploid counterparts. A consistently reliable method of producing sterile triploid salmon will have both political and economic benefits for salmon aquaculture.

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