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Hargrove J.W.,Stellenbosch University | Muzari M.O.,Tropical Public Health Services
Physiological Entomology | Year: 2015

In Zimbabwe, female tsetse Glossina pallidipes Austen, collected from artificial warthog burrows and subjected to ovarian dissection and nutritional analysis, provide the first field estimates of resource allocation from mother to offspring across all of pregnancy. Approximately 45% of 1833 females captured are full-term pregnant on entering the burrow. The remainder presumably use burrows as refuges at temperatures >32°C. Maternal residual dry weight (RDW) increases by 1.5mg after the first feed post-larviposition but, thereafter, only by 1.4mg by 90% of pregnancy completion. Uterine RDW changes little by 60% of pregnancy completion but increases by >6mg by parturition. Between the times of 5% and 90% pregnancy completion, maternal RDW is approximately constant: it then declines 2.8mg by parturition, balancing larval gains of 2.6mg. Mothers accumulate 6.3mg of fat in the first 80% of pregnancy, while uterine fat increases by only 0.8mg. Thereafter, by parturition, larval fat increases by 4.1mg, whereas maternal fat declines by 3.3mg. The larva deposited is 5% heavier than its mother and has 52% more fat. RDW and fat levels, corrected for fly size and haematin, are 1 and 2mg, respectively, lower in females from traps than those from burrows. Burrow catches provide an improved picture of tsetse pregnancy dynamics, highlighting a reproductive strategy involving resource commitment to the larva being delayed until late pregnancy when sufficient stores guarantee viable pupal production. Larval development in tsetse starts significantly later than the analogous changes during pregnancy in two mammals and two viviparous fish. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

Muzari O.M.,Tropical Public Health Services | Adamczyk R.,Tropical Public Health Services | Davis J.,Tropical Public Health Services | Ritchie S.,James Cook University | Devine G.,Tropical Public Health Services
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2014

ABSTRACT The residual efficacy of λ-cyhalothrin sprayed on foliage was evaluated against various mosquito species in sections of forest in Cairns, Queensland, Australia. Weekly sweep-net collections in treated and untreated areas before and after spraying showed 87-100% reductions in mosquito numbers for the first 9 wk postspray. After that period, reductions fluctuated but remained >71% up to 14 wk posttreatment. Mosquito mortality ranged from 96 to 100% in contact bioassays of treated leaves during the 14 wk study. Our results demonstrate that spraying harborage vegetation with λ-cyhalothrin is an extremely effective strategy for the control of sylvan and peridomestic mosquito species in tropical north Queensland. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

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