Tropical Institute of Ecological science

Kottayam, India

Tropical Institute of Ecological science

Kottayam, India
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Ananthakrishnan M.,Tropical institute of Ecological science | Kumarasamy K.,Tropical institute of Ecological science
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2013

Genotoxicity of pesticides for non-target organism and their influence on ecosystem are of worldwide concern. In the present study, the genotoxic effect of different concentrations of Furadan and Enodosulphan on (Allium cepa) root tips was evaluated through chromosome aberration assay (mitotic index and chromosome aberration rate). Both the pesticides showed genotoxic effects with variation with respect to dosage and exposure of time. The decline in mitotic index and increase in percentage of chromosomal aberration was observed as the concentration and duration of treatment was increased. The results showed that both of the tested pesticides are mito-depressive. Mitotic index of both Furadan and Enodosulphan treated root tip cells shows significant decrease in 50 and 100μg/ml concentration for 6 and 24 hrs. The silver staining technique is also done on root tip cells which are treated with Furadan and Enodosulphan 100μg/ml concentration for 24 hours duration. Silver staining results showed the presence of cell proliferation.


Sreekanth P.M.,Bangalore City College New Campus | Balasundaran M.,Tropical Institute of Ecological science | Nazeem P.A.,Kerala Agricultural University | Suma T.B.,Kerala Forest Research Institute
Conservation Genetics | Year: 2012

Teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) is one of the most durable timbers in the world that is used for all conceivable purposes. Its widespread use has constrained the distribution of species to small and isolated populations. The genetic structure within and between nine natural teak growing forests of the Western Ghats of India belonging to the states of Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers to provide reasoned scientific management practices and conservation measures. The use of ten selective primer combinations on 180 samples (9 populations X 20 trees) resulted in a total of 665 bands of which 99.4 % were polymorphic. Gene diversity index (H) varied from 0.1387 (Barchi) to 0.2449 (Wayanad). The mean gene diversity (HS) was 0.1995 and the total gene diversity (HT) was 0.264. The Southern Western Ghats populations showed higher within population gene diversity. The relative magnitude of genetic differentiation among populations (GST) was 0.244. Positive correlation between genetic and geographical distances was observed. PCoA, UPGMA and STRUCTURE analyses revealed the tendency of the individual trees within a population to align together indicating specific identity of each population. In the UPGMA dendrogram, Nilambur population joined separately with a large cluster in which the other Kerala populations and Tamil Nadu population formed sub clusters indicating a separate identity for Nilambur population among Southern Western Ghats populations. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Varghese A.,Tropical Institute of Ecological science | Thomas M.,Tropical Institute of Ecological science | Kurian P.,St. Mary's College
Pollution Research | Year: 2012

Pamba, the third largest river in Kerala is starting from the foothills of Western Ghats and is exposed to millions of Sabarimala devotees, every year. Pamba river water and its adjoining drinking water resources (< 100 mt) in upper and lower catchments of the river were examined for fungal contamination. A total of 17 pathogenic fungi were obtained from river water during peak pilgrimage season, and 9 in the post season, while from drinking water 6 pathogens during peak season and 7 in post season. Fungal pathogens including keratinophylics and dermatophytes are isolated from both river and drinking water resources in Pamba river basin. Genus Fusarium and Aspergillus showed high rate of isolation irrespective of the season. There is no significant change m pathogenic diversity in ground water resources even after pilgrimage season, while surface water showed significant reduction in number of fungi isolated. A steady increase in fungal density was observed from upper to lower catchments of the river. Copyright © EM International.


Varghese A.,Tropical Institute of Ecological science | John C.M.,Mahatma Gandhi University | Jose S.K.,Mahatma Gandhi University | Kurlan P.,St. Mary's College
Ecology, Environment and Conservation | Year: 2012

Periyar Tiger Reserve (PTR), the largest protected area in the state of Kerala with an area of 925 sq. km. is under severe anthropogenic pressure due to the annual pilgrimage to the Sastha temple (Lord Ayyappa temple), located at Sabarimala, in the south-western Pamba range of the reserve. The present study was conducted in this background to analyse the land use/ land cover change in Sabarimala and Karimala sections of the Pamba range of PTR. The forest cover was decreased during the period 1967- 2004, whereas other geographical elements such as open forest and grassland showed significant increase in the area. 44.16% of forest area has been reduced during the period, where 30% of the forest area was converted to other land use. Grassland showed sharp increase of 34.17% area between 1967- 2004 and open forest showed 7% increase during the period. 4% of the total forest area was converted to barren area and settlements during the period. The increasing number of pilgrims with improper and unplanned infrastructural facili-ties with less concern of waste management are causing pressure on the biodiversity and thus resulted in drastic change in land cover of this key protected area in the central Kerala. The pilgrimage activities inside the PTR have to be scientifically managed for preventing the further change in land cover pattern of the protected area. Copyright © EM International.


Sreekanth P.M.,Bangalore City College New Campus | Balasundaran M.,Tropical Institute of Ecological science | Nazeem P.A.,Kerala Agricultural University
Journal of Forestry Research | Year: 2014

Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) is a popular hardwood species native to South and South-East Asia. The possible association of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker with morphological variables of eleven important characters viz. girth at breast height (GBH), height of tree, bole height, branch knots, presence of fluting, spiral stem, leaf hair, leaf length/breadth ratio, branching pattern, bark colour and petiole shape for nine natural populations comprising 180 genotypes of teak (9 populations × 20 trees). The phenogram constructed using Euclidean distances for the eleven morphological characters showed that the populations were not grouped according to their geographical origin. The Mantel’s test for pairwise correlation between Euclidean distances of different morphological variables and genetic distances from AFLP data revealed that only petiole character (r =0.269; p =0.046) and height of tree (r =0.200; p =0.001) were significantly correlated with that of AFLP data matrix. The nine populations in this study covered a geographic area of about 1000 km stretch along the Western Ghat of South India. A test of correlation between genetic and geographic distance matrices revealed a significant positive correlation (r =0.475; p =0.009). The lack of perfect congruence between morphological and molecular data except for geographic distance, tree height and petiole character suggested that the morphological system might be useful for the morphotypes management but not appropriate to study the genetic structure of the teak populations. © 2014, Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Thomas M.,Tropical Institute of Ecological science | Samuel K.A.,CMS College | Kurian P.,St. Mary's College
Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2011

Here, we report skin and hair infection due to S. dimidiatum in R. norvegicus inhabiting Vembanad- Kol wetland agroecosystem. Though several human infections due to this fungus were noticed, to the best of our knowledge this is the first report of animal infection due to S. dimidiatum. © Global Science Publications.


Rajan R.,Tropical Institute of Ecological science | Kurian P.,St. Mary's College
Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2011

Plastics are versatile and have wide applications in every facets of human life. Among thermoplastics PVC is the most commonly used in electronics, automobile, upholstery, plumbing and flooring. Burgeoning use of plastics has now become one of the serious environmental issues as they are non-degradable. However recent attempts showed that few microorganisms like fungi have limited biodegradation potential with specific plastics in natural conditions. The diversity and load of PVC degrading fungi associated with the dumping yard soil Vadavathoor, Kottayam was evaluated using the clear-zone method. The fungal load ranges from 5.0 x102/g dry soil to 9.1 x 102/g dry soil. The predominant genera include Aspergillus, Penicillium, Chrysosporium, Cunninghamella, Mucor, Alternaria and Rhizopus. Among the isolates Aspergillus, Pénicillium and Chrysosporium could readily grow on PVC powder. The ability of the fungi to produce various depolymerase enzymes such as amylase, cellulose, gelatinase, protease, ligninase and lipase were also determined. The result suggests that the biodegradation potential of the selected fungi with PVC is promising. © Global Science Publications.


Varghese A.,Tropical Institute of Ecological science | Kurian P.,St. Mary's College
Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2011

Pamba, the third largest river in Kerala is starting from the foothills of Western Ghats and is exposed to millions of Sabarimala devotees, every year. Pamba river water and its adjoining drinking water resources (< 100 mt.) in upper and lower catchments of the river were evaluated for both bacteriological and physico-chemical parameters. A total of 21 pathogenic bacteria were obtained during peak pilgrimage season and 23 were isolated in post season, from river water, while from drinking water 19 pathogens were obtained during peak pilgrimage season and 18 species in post season. There is no significant change in pathogenic density and diversity in water resources even after pilgrimage season. A steady increase in bacterial density was observed from upper to lower catchments of the river. All the tested drinking water samples showed significantly high level of MPN, during peak pilgrimage season but comparatively less in post season. The changes in physicochemical parameters have significant influence upon pathogenic population and poses serious public health threat both to the interacting community as well as downstream riverbank community. © Global Science Publications.


Dev S.A.,Kerala Forest Research Institute Peechi | Muralidharan E.M.,Kerala Forest Research Institute Peechi | Sujanapal P.,Kerala Forest Research Institute Peechi | Balasundaran M.,Tropical Institute of Ecological science
Annals of Forest Science | Year: 2014

Context: East Indian sandalwood (Santalum album L.) in commercial markets is highly prone to adulteration. A number of cases were registered with regard to the adulteration of East Indian sandalwood, but the lack of technical tools for the precise species identification of the source wood stalled most of the court cases. Aims: The standard DNA barcode regions, the rbcL, matK and trnH-psbA chloroplast genomic sequences recommended by the Consortium of Barcode of Life (COBOL) were analysed to distinguish wood adulterants of East Indian sandalwood. Methods: Standard polymerase chain reactions with COBOL recommended primers were performed for all three barcode loci. The PCR products after gel elution were sequenced and alignments were performed using CLUSTALX. Results: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified with rbcL and trnH-psbA sequences of Erythroxylum monogynum Roxb. as well as with matK sequences of Osyris wightiana Wall ex. Wight could be efficiently utilized for the detection/monitoring of East Indian sandalwood adulterants. Among the two common adulterants O. wightiana and E. monogynum, the former was more similar to S. album and grouped together in the dendrogram. Conclusion: The study recommends the exploitation of DNA barcoding technique using standard barcodes to trace sandalwood timber adulterants. © 2013 INRA and Springer-Verlag France.


PubMed | Tropical Institute of Ecological science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] | Year: 2013

The past few decades have witnessed an overwhelming increase in the incidence of fungal infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Consequently, zoonotic diseases, especially through rodents constitute a prominent group among the emerging diseases. Rodents are commensal to man and related health risks are common. Water rats (Rattus norvegicus) are typical to Vembanadu-Kol wetland agroecosystems, where they can act as a good carrier nexus for pathogens. The present study evaluates the carrier status of water rats with respect to fungal pathogens. A total of fifty two fungi covering eighteen families were isolated. Among the isolates, eight were dermaptophytes and Chrysosporium sp. (89.18%) was the frequent isolate. The source-wise analyses showed an increased isolation from ventral hair (67 isolates). Water rats of Vembanadu-Kol wetland agroecosystem are potent carrier of dermaptophytes and other opportunistic fungi, and strong carrier paths are existing too.

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