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Pandey A.K.,Tropical Forest Research Institute | Shackleton C.M.,Rhodes University
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2012

Embelia tsjeriam-cottam Roem & Schult A. DC. (Myrsinaceae), popularly known as Vaividang, is a vulnerable forest species because of the high demand of fruits for medicinal purposes. It is in great demand in ayurveda and the pharmaceutical industry (>100. t/yr), which has imposed tremendous pressure on some natural populations. The fruits contain embelin (a benzoquinone derivative), which has wide clinical applications. Considering the importance, growing use and decreasing populations in some areas of its natural habitat, a study on development of sustainable harvesting practices of E. tsjeriam-cottam fruits was conducted in Chhattisgarh, in central India. Experiments were laid out in Dhamtari, Marvahi and Bilaspur forest divisions of the state covering both protected and open forests in a randomized design with three replications. At each site, quadrats of 40 × 20 m were laid out to study the effect of two fruit harvesting methods and four harvesting intensities on fruit yield, and regeneration of the species. Fruits were analyzed for their embelin content by HPLC method. This study is the first to experimentally assess the consequences of harvesting of E. tsjeriam-cottam fruits from India. It was found that up to 70% fruits could be hand plucked at the right time of maturity (December) to obtain quality produce without impacting the current population size. Since every year is not a good fruiting year, it is difficult to develop universal harvest regime for sustainable management of E. tsjeriam-cottam. The embelin content increased as fruits ripened, ranging from 1.01% to 5.63%. The adoption of sustainable harvesting practices will be helpful in sustainable management of E. tsjeriam-cottam and also provide income and livelihood opportunities to rural people on a sustainable basis. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Shackleton C.M.,Rhodes University | Pandey A.K.,Tropical Forest Research Institute
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2014

Non-timber forests products (NTFPs) provide multiple livelihood benefits to local communities and regional and national economies. And yet this knowledge is rarely drawn upon in debates around and design of poverty alleviation or land use policies, strategies and projects. Unless the accumulating wealth of empirical evidence can be translated into policies and approaches at higher levels, and integrated into poverty alleviation programmes, it will have little impact on local and national poverty profiles. In this paper we propose and briefly discuss eight steps to facilitate integration of NTFPs into the development agenda, for the benefit of local communities. These include: (1) proper inventory of NTFP stocks, (2) research on NTFP ecology and sustainable harvest levels, (3) introduction of extension services for NTFPs, (4) inclusion of NTFPs in land management and trade-off decisions, (5) integration of NTFPs into sectoral policies, (6) ensuring NTFP commercialisation is not at the expense of local livelihood needs, (7) promoting security of access and use, and (8) examination of local contextual drivers of unsustainable use. Each is presented along with examples or proposals towards implementation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Singh N.,Tropical Forest Research Institute
Nature Environment and Pollution Technology | Year: 2010

Saponins were isolated from the neoil bearing forest seeds viz., Maduca indica, Sapindus mukrossi and their herbicidal activities were assessed under laboratory conditions at different dilutions against Echinochloa colanum, a notorious weed of silvl-agri (babul-paddy) agroforesty model. The effect of dilutions viz., 2.5,5,10% of saponin isolates on % germination, and root and shoot length were recorded. The incorporation of 2.5 % concentration of saponin dilutions of different species drastically reduced germination (35-47%) as compared the control. No root formation was recorded in all treatments while 60.09-94.95% shoot length inhibition over control (3.27 cm) was recorded in different treatments. Screened species grow luxuriantly in tropical region and easily available source for the isolation of saponins, which can be utilized as a lead molecule forthe synthesis of safer, eco-friendly and more economical weed control agents. Source

Singh N.,Tropical Forest Research Institute
Nature Environment and Pollution Technology | Year: 2010

Wild edible fungus, Astraeus hygromatricus was analysed for its nutritional and anti nutritional contents. 11.71% and 4.66% protein content was recorded in outer part and inner part of the fruit bodies, respectively which is comparable with other edible mushrooms. Fruit bodies contain high carbohydrate content i.e., 29.48% and 35.41 % in outer and inner parts respectively. The ash content of A. hygrometricus is low (2.5%). Fungus samples are good source of minerals such as P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Mn. Two major vitamins i.e., water soluble vitamins, ascorbic acid and thiamine, were also found to be present in both inner and outer parts (3.26 and 0.26 mg/100g). Source

Pandey A.K.,Tropical Forest Research Institute | Bhargava P.,Tropical Forest Research Institute
Journal of Forestry Research | Year: 2014

Terminalia bellerica Roxb. (Belleric myrobalan) is one of the important multipurpose trees in central India. The fruits of the tree are highly valued for medicinal uses, with the greatest demand coming from the pharmaceutical industry. This has resulted in overexploitation and present harvesting practices have led to a significant decline in natural regeneration for this tree species. Our study was conducted from 2006 to 2009 in Chhattisgarh (India) to standardize suitable harvesting practices for sustainable management for this valuable species. Experiments were conducted at four different sites located in Dhamtari, Sarguja, and Raigarh forest divisions of the state, covering both protected and open forest in a complete randomized block design (RCBD). At each site, linear transects of 200 m × 100 m (2 ha) were randomly selected to sample the initial population and study the effects of two harvesting methods (traditional and nondestructive) and four harvesting intensities (60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%) on the sustainability of T. bellerica. Fruits were collected and analyzed for their tannin and gallic acid content. Significant increase in tannin and gallic acid content was found with the maturity of fruits (September to December). This is the first study to experimentally assess the consequences of harvesting of T. bellerica fruits in central India. Our findings reveal that harvesting intensity, time, and method are key factors for maintaining the population. Nondestructive harvesting methods were found to be superior to traditional harvesting in terms of regeneration, recruitment, and concentration of active ingredients. When the fruits were harvested through non-destructive means at maturity, the population of species increased. The study concludes that 70% harvest of T. bellerica fruits through non-destructive means maintains the sustainability and provides quality raw material for the pharmaceutical industry. © 2014 Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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