Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center

Khon Kaen, Thailand

Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center

Khon Kaen, Thailand
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Chanthakhoun V.,Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center | Chanthakhoun V.,Souphanouvong University | Wanapat M.,Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2010

A quantitative real-time PCR approach was used to determine the population densities of major ruminal cellulolytic bacterial species (Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus and Ruminococcus flavefaciens) in rumen fluid and digesta of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Four rumen-fistulated, male swamp buffalo were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effect of Phaseolus calcaratus Hay (PCH) supplementation. PCH contained 18.3% Crude Protein (CP) and 2.8% condensed tannins. Animals were given 0, 300, 600 and 900g day-1 as supplements. All animals were given ad libitum access to rice straw while additional concentrate (12.6% CP) was given at 0.3% body mass and each period lasted for 21 days. At the end of each period, rumen fluid and digesta was collected at 0, 4 h post morning feeding. It was found that PCH supplementation increased these three cellulolytic bacteria F. succinogenes between 2.5 and 5.5×109, R. flavefaciens between 3.6 and 9.1×109, R. albus between 5.7 and 17.9×l08 copies mL-1 at 0, 300, 600 and 900g day-1 of supplementation, respectively. Moreover, at 4 h post-morning feeding, the populations of the two cellulolytic bacteria were higher than those found at 0 h post-morning feeding. It is most notable that R. flavefaciens and R. albus were the highest in population in the rumen of swamp buffalo, hence indicating high ability in utilizing high fibrous feeds. © Medwell Journals, 2010.


Kongmun P.,Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center | Wanapat M.,Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center | Pakdee P.,Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center | Navanukraw C.,Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

An in vitro gas technique trial was conducted to investigate the effect of coconut oil (Co), garlic powder (G) and their mixtures on in vitro fermentation. Incubation was carried out using rumen fluid obtained from swamp buffaloes. The experimental design was a completely randomized design (CRD). The dietary treatments were ratio of Co and G supplementation at 0:0, 16:0, 8:4, 4:8 and 0:16 mg with rice straw as a roughage source. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h of incubation. In vitro true digestibility (IVTD) was determined after 48 h incubation. Cumulative gas production at 72 h was significantly lowest (P < 0.05) at Co:G, 16:0 mg. Garlic powder supplementation at 16 mg decreased (P < 0.05) NH3-N concentration and increased (P < 0.05) in vitro true digestibility (IVTD) while supplemented coconut oil at 16 mg decreased (P < 0.05) IVTD. Total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were lowest (P < 0.05) by garlic powder supplementation at 16 mg. However, supplementation of Co:G, 8:4, 4:8 and 0:16 mg tended to increase the proportion of propionate, decrease C2:C3 ratio and reduce (P < 0.05) methane (CH4) production. Protozoal population was significantly lowest (P < 0.05) at Co:G, 8:4 mg. Moreover, application of quantitative PCR to quantify predominant cellulolytic bacteria (16S rRNA) and fungi (18S rRNA) targets revealed that treatments did not have an effect on Ruminococcus flavefaciens and total fungi population. However, it was found that supplementation of Co:G at 8:4 mg increased Ruminococcus albus population (P < 0.05). Based on this study, it suggests that supplementation of Co:G at 8:4 and 0:16 mg could improve ruminal fluid fermentation in terms of volatile fatty acid profile, reduced methane losses and reduced protozoal population. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Wanapat M.,Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center | Kang S.,Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center | Khejornsart P.,Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center | Wanapat S.,Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center | Wanapat S.,Khon Kaen University
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2013

Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG), respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD) excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency. © 2013 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences.


Polyorach S.,Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center | Wanapat M.,Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center | Cherdthong A.,Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2014

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of protein sources and roughage (R) to concentrate (C) ratio on in vitro fermentation parameters using a gas production technique. The experimental design was a 2×5 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design (CRD). Factor A was 2 levels of protein sources yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) and soybean meal (SBM) and factor B was 5 levels of roughage to concentrate (R:C) ratio at 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, and 0:100, respectively. Rice straw was used as a roughage source. It was found that gas production from the insoluble fraction (b) of YEFECAP supplemented group was significantly higher (p<0.05) than those in SBM supplemented group. Moreover, the intercept value (a), gas production from the insoluble fraction (b), gas production rate constants for the insoluble fraction (c), potential extent of gas production (a+b) and cumulative gas production at 96 h were influenced (p<0.01) by R:C ratio. In addition, protein source had no effect (p>0.05) on ether in vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDMD) and organic (IVOMD) while R:C ratio affected the IVDMD and IVOMD (p<0.01). Moreover, YEFECAP supplanted group showed a significantly increased (p<0.05) total VFA and C3 while C 2, C2:C3 and CH4 production were decreased when compared with SBM supplemented group. In addition, a decreasing R:C ratio had a significant effect (p<0.05) on increasing total VFA, C 3 and NH3-N, but decreasing the C2, C 2:C3 and CH4 production (p<0.01). Furthermore, total bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus populations in YEFECAP supplemented group were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those in the SBM supplemented group while fungal zoospores, methanogens and protozoal population remained unchanged (p>0.05) as compared between the two sources of protein. Moreover, fungal zoospores and total bacteria population were significantly increased (p<0.01) while, F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens, R. albus, methanogens and protozoal population were decreased (p<0.01) with decreasing R:C ratio. In conclusion, YEFECAP has a potential for use as a protein source for improving rumen fermentation efficiency in ruminants. Copyright © 2014 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences.


Thao N.T.,Khon Kaen University | Wanapat M.,Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center | Cherdthong A.,Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center | Kang S.,Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2014

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) crude oils (EuO) supplementation on voluntary feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics in swamp buffaloes. Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes, body weight (BW) of 420±15.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were untreated rice straw (RS) without EuO (T1) and with EuO (T2) supplementation, and 3% urea-treated rice straw (UTRS) without EuO (T3) and with EuO (T4) supplementation. The EuO was supplemented at 2 mL/h/d in respective treatment. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate mixture was offered at 3 g/kg BW while roughage was fed ad libitum. Total dry matter and roughage intake, and apparent digestibilites of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber were improved (p<0.01) by UTRS. There was no effect of EuO supplementation on feed intake and nutrient digestibility. Ruminal pH and temperature were not (p>0.05) affected by either roughage sources or EuO supplementation. However, buffaloes fed UTRS had higher ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen as compared with RS. Total volatile fatty acid and butyrate proportion were similar among treatments, whereas acetate was decreased and propionate molar proportion was increased by EuO supplementation. Feeding UTRS resulted in lower acetate and higher propionate concentration compared to RS. Moreover, supplementation of EuO reduced methane production especially in UTRS treatment. Protozoa populations were reduced by EuO supplementation while fungi zoospores remained the same. Total, amylolytic and cellulolytic bacterial populations were increased (p<0.01) by UTRS; However, EuO supplementation did not affect viable bacteria. Nitrogen intake and in feces were found higher in buffaloes fed UTRS. A positive nitrogen balance (absorption and retention) was in buffaloes fed UTRS. Supplementation of EuO did not affect nitrogen utilization. Both allantoin excretion and absorption and microbial nitrogen supply were increased by UTRS whereas efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was similar in all treatments. Findings of present study suggested that EuO could be used as a feed additive to modify the rumen fermentation in reducing methane production both in RS and UTRS. Feeding UTRS could improve feed intake and efficiency of rumen fermentation in swamp buffaloes. However, more research is warranted to determine the effect of EuO supplementation in production animals. Copyright © 2014 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences.

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