Porch T.G.,Tropical Agriculture Research Station |
Harmsen E.W.,University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2011
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is extensively grown in production zones where water is limiting. Crop water use efficiency is the ratio of biomass or seed yield produced per unit of water evapotranspired in a particular environment. Transpiration efficiency (TE) is the ratio of yield per unit of water transpired. The objectives of this study were to: (i) determine the water use efficiency (WUE) for six common bean genotypes (BAT 477, Morales, SEN 3, SEN 21, SER 16, and SER 21) in the greenhouse and for two genotypes in the field (Morales and SER 16) and (ii) determine TE for two common bean genotypes using estimated evapotranspiration rates in the field. Three greenhouse trials and two field trials were conducted during 3 yr in Puerto Rico. Three water levels in the greenhouse and two in the field were applied. Actual evapotranspiration was estimated using the generalized Penman-Monteith model based on aerodynamic and surface resistance, and with drainage type lysimetersin the field. Differences among genotypes for WUE were found in the greenhouse experiments, with SEN 3 and SER 21 showing superior WUE in several treatments. In the field, TE and WUE were affected by water level, and TE was consistent with previously reported coefficients for common bean. © 2011 by the American Society of Agronomy. All rights reserved.
Cuevas H.E.,Tropical Agriculture Research Station |
Prom L.K.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Isakeit T.,Texas A&M University |
Radwan G.,Texas A&M University
Crop Protection | Year: 2016
Sorghum is an important worldwide crop whose yield can be significantly reduced by anthracnose (. Colletotrichum sublineola) and grain mold diseases (multiple fungi). The identification of new genetic sources of resistance to both diseases is imperative for the development of new sorghum varieties. To this end, a total of 80 exotic germplasm accessions from Burkina Faso (BFA) and South Africa (ZAF) were evaluated for anthracnose and grain mold resistance during two planting periods in 2012 at the USDA-ARS experimental farms in Isabela, Puerto Rico. Twelve accessions were resistant to anthracnose during both evaluations of which 10 are originally from BFA. The anthracnose resistant accessions identified herein had a hypersensitive reaction characterized by lesions having red and purple color. Likewise, 9 accessions exhibited grain mold resistance after being inoculated with a mixture of a conidial suspension of Fusarium thapsinum, Fusarium semitectum, and Curvularia lunata during both periods. Eight of these accessions (PI 586182, PI 586186, PI 647705, PI 647706, PI 647707, PI 647708, PI 647710, and PI 647712) originated from BFA, while one (PI 61666) is from ZAF. The PI 586186 was the only accession that exhibited resistance to both anthracnose and grain mold. The grain mold resistant accession PI 61666 has a panicle shape that resembles a standard United States commercial type sorghum and is also photoperiod insensitive. The results presented herein indicate that the BFA germplasm could be an important source for anthracnose and grain mold resistance genes. The integration of these anthracnose and grain mold resistant germplasm into sorghum breeding programs should aid in expanding the genetic diversity and in the development of new resistant varieties. © 2015.
Erpelding J.E.,Tropical Agriculture Research Station
Plant Protection Science | Year: 2011
Sorghum anthracnose is a disease of worldwide importance and host-plant resistance is the most practical method of disease management. In this study, 154 sorghum accessions from the Botswana collection maintained by the United States National Plant Germplasm System were inoculated with Colletotrichum sublineolum and evaluated for disease resistance at the Tropical Agriculture Research Station in Isabela, Puerto Rico during 2007 and 2008. A resistant response was observed for 69 accessions in 2007 and for 48 accessions in 2008 with no acervuli development observed on inoculated leaves. The low frequency of resistant germplasm is expected from a region of low annual rainfall. However, disease severity was low for the susceptible accessions with a mean severity of 11% for the 85 susceptible accessions observed in 2007 and 17% for the 106 susceptible accessions identified in 2008. The highest frequency of resistant accessions was observed for the Ngamiland district with 58% of the accessions rated as resistant, whereas the frequency of resistant accessions ranged from 22% to 36% for the other districts. The lowest mean disease severity was also observed for the susceptible accessions from the Ngamiland district with the highest mean disease severity observed for susceptible accessions from the Kgatleng district. The resistant accessions identified in this study would be useful for the development of disease resistant varieties and the results indicated an ecogeographic association with disease resistance.
Goenaga R.,Tropical Agriculture Research Station
Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico | Year: 2010
A major impediment to the development of a mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) industry is the long pre-bearing stage that seedlings require to produce fruits. A field study was conducted to determine the effect of Promalin on the growth of mangosteen seedlings. Year-old seedlings were transplanted to the field in Santa Isabel, Puerto Rico. Four applications of Promalin were used as a foliar spray at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 mg/L beginning when seedlings were approximately 2.5 years old, and then every 10 to 15 weeks over a period of almost one year. Final measurements were made 10 weeks after the final application, and 353 days after treatment initiation, when seedlings were 3.5 years old. No significant differences were observed in plant height, stem diameter, or number of branches and leaves.
Goenaga R.,Tropical Agriculture Research Station
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2011
Little is known about the adaptability of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) to highly acidic soils rich in aluminum (Al). A 2-yr field study was conducted to determine the effects of various levels of soil Al on dry matter production, plant growth, and nutrient concentration in the leaves of four cultivars of rambutan. Cultivars and the cultivar x year interaction were not statistically significant for most variables measured in the study. Total, leaf, petiole, stem and root dry weights significantly increased at soil Al concentrations ranging from 0.67 cmol kg-1 to 11.0 cmol kg-1. At this range of soil Al, the concentrations of Al and manganese (Mn) in leaf tissue declined sharply. The results of this study demonstrate that rambutan is highly tolerant to acid soils and that tolerance may involve an Al- and Mn- exclusion mechanism.